Communities & Sociology | The Canadian Encyclopedia

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  • Article

    The History of Canadian Women in Sport

    For hundreds of years, very few sports were considered appropriate for women, whether for reasons of supposed physical frailty, or the alleged moral dangers of vigorous exercise. Increasingly, women have claimed their right to participate not only in what were deemed graceful and feminine sports, but also in the sweaty, rough-and-tumble games their brothers played.

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  • Timelines

    The Indian Act

    The Indian Act is the principal law through which the federal government administers Indian status, local First Nations governments and the management of reserve land and communal monies. The Indian Act does not include Métis or Inuit peoples. The Act came into power on 12 April 1876. It consolidated a number of earlier colonial laws that sought to control and assimilate Indigenous peoples into Euro-Canadian culture. The Indian Act has been amended many times over...

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  • Article

    The Journey of Nishiyuu (The Journey of the People)

    Between 16 January and 25 March 2013, six Cree youths and their guide walked 1,600 km from Whapmagoostui First Nation, the northernmost Cree village in Quebec on Hudson Bay, to Parliament Hill in Ottawa in support of the Idle No More movement. They called the trek “The Journey of Nishiyuu,” which is Cree for “people.” Known as the Nishiyuu Walkers, the group attracted national media attention and inspired Indigenous youth to be the force of change in their lives and communities. (See also Indigenous Women Activists in Canada and Indigenous Political Organization and Activism in Canada.)

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  • Interview

    The Legacy of Terry Fox: An Interview with Bill Vigars

    Bill Vigars discusses Terry Fox’s inspiration for the Marathon of Hope in a 2015 interview with Historica Canada

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  • Interview

    The Legacy of Terry Fox: An Interview with Darrell Fox

    Darrell Fox discusses his brother’s determination in a 2015 interview with Historica Canada

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  • Interview

    The Legacy of Terry Fox: An Interview with Leslie Scrivener

    Leslie Scrivener describes meeting Terry for the first time and being struck by his optimism and focus in an April 2015 interview with Historica Canada.

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  • Editorial

    The Life and Meaning of Everett Klippert

    The following article is an editorial written by The Canadian Encyclopedia staff. Editorials are not usually updated. Everett George Klippert (1926–1996) was a popular Calgary bus driver who was jailed for homosexuality from 1960 to 1964, and from 1965 to 1971. An unlikely martyr, he shunned the spotlight. Klippert was once described as “Canada’s most famous homosexual” due to his unjust prison sentences, which ultimately led to the decriminalization of homosexuality in Canada.

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  • Article

    The New Canadian

    The New Canadian (1938–2001) was an English-language newspaper published by and for the Japanese Canadian community. Initially, the newspaper was founded as a forum for second-generation Japanese Canadians to express and foster their identity as English-speaking Canadians and to support a mission of “cultural, economic, and political assimilation.” (See also Canadian English; Languages in use in Canada.) The newspaper became the primary source of both English- and Japanese-language news for Japanese Canadians during their forced uprooting from the west coast in the 1940s (see Internment of Japanese Canadians). It continued to be published in the postwar years, with its English-language content shifting towards social and community news while its Japanese-language section grew in importance for pre-war and postwar Japanese immigrants. The newspaper was sold to Japan Communications in 1990 and its final edition was published in 2001.

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  • Article

    The Penner Report

    The Penner Report was a report prepared by the Special Committee of the House of Commons on Indian Self-Government. It was issued in November 1983. Named after committee chairman Keith Penner, the report made a series of recommendations. These recommendations promoted the concept of self-governing First Nations. First Nations, in this legal context, are classified as status Indians under the Indian Act.

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  • Article

    The Underground Railroad (Plain-Language Summary)

    The Underground Railroad was a secret organization. It was made up of people who helped African Americans escape from slavery in the southern United States. The people in this organization set up a system of routes that escaped slaves could travel to find freedom in the northern United States and Canada. In the 1800s (the 19th century) between 30,000 and 40,000 escaped slaves travelled to British North America (Canada) through the Underground Railroad. (This article is a plain-language summary of the Underground Railroad in Canada. If you are interested in reading about this topic in more depth, please see our full-length entry on The Underground Railroad.)

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  • Article

    Thelma Chalifoux

    Thelma Julia Chalifoux, senator, entrepreneur, activist (born 8 February 1929 in Calgary, AB; died 22 September 2017 in St. Albert, AB). Chalifoux was the first Métis woman appointed to the Senate of Canada. As a senator, she was concerned with a range of issues, including Métis housing, drug company relations with the federal government, and environmental legislation. An ardent advocate for women’s and Indigenous rights, Chalifoux was involved in organizations such as the Aboriginal Women’s Business Development Corporation and the Métis Women’s Council. She was also known for her work in the protection of Métis culture, having served in the Alberta Métis Senate and Michif Cultural and Métis Resource Institute (now Michif Cultural Connections).

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  • Article

    Thomas Albert Moore

    Thomas Albert Moore, Methodist minister, moderator of United Church of Canada (b at Acton, Canada W 29 June 1860; d at Toronto 31 Mar 1940).

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  • Article

    Thomas D'Arcy McGee

    Thomas D’Arcy McGee, journalist, politician, poet (born 13 April 1825 in Carlingford, County Louth, Ireland; died 7 April 1868 in Ottawa, ON). Thomas D’Arcy McGee was dedicated to the cause of Irish national liberation. This pushed him towards revolutionary anti-British doctrine in his early years. However, he matured to become a staunch defender of British constitutional monarchy and a Father of Confederation. He was an advocate for minority rights at a time when the politics of ethnic and religious identity were intensely fraught. He was an incredibly eloquent public speaker and a passionate advocate for Canadian interests. However, his political transformation ultimately damaged his popularity with Irish nationalists, particularly the Fenians. He was assassinated in 1868.

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  • Article

    Thomas Peters

    Thomas Peters (also Petters), Black community leader, soldier (born circa 1738 in West Africa; died 25 June 1792 in Freetown, Sierra Leone). During the American Revolution, Peters escaped enslavement and joined the Black Pioneers, a unit of the British army. After the war, he and thousands of other Black Loyalists were transported to Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. Peters became a spokesperson for Black Loyalists, who were frustrated that they hadn’t received the provisions and land promised by British officials. He eventually helped recruit Black settlers for the West African colony of Sierra Leone, where he died in 1792.

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  • Article

    Early Inuit (Thule) Winter House

    The early Inuit (Thule) were an Indigenous people who began to occupy the Arctic, from Alaska to Greenland, around 1000 CE. In the winter, the early Inuit used a house built partially into the ground to keep them warm for long periods of time. One striking feature of this structure was the roof, which was sometimes made of whalebone. (See also Architectural History of Indigenous Peoples in Canada.)

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