History/Historical Figures | The Canadian Encyclopedia

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  • Article

    Pierre-Joseph-Olivier Chauveau

    Pierre-Joseph-Olivier Chauveau, lawyer, educator, politician, premier of Québec 1867-73 (b at Charlesbourg, LC 30 May 1820; d at Québec 4 Apr 1890). Elected to the Assembly of the Province of Canada in 1844, he later held several Cabinet posts.

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    https://development.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/images/tce_placeholder.jpg?v=e9dca980c9bdb3aa11e832e7ea94f5d9 Pierre-Joseph-Olivier Chauveau
  • Article

    Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville et d'Ardillières

    Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville et d'Ardillières, soldier, adventurer (baptised 20 July 1661 at Ville Marie [Montréal], New France; died probably on 9 July 1706 in Havana, Cuba). He was the third and most famous of Charles Le Moyne's 12 sons.

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    https://d2ttikhf7xbzbs.cloudfront.net/media/media/22f54a67-0b82-4032-a05c-ab1245eb0f3f.jpg Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville et d'Ardillières
  • Article

    Pierre Maillard

    Pierre Maillard, priest of the Séminaire des missions étrangères, missionary (b in the diocese of Chartres, France c 1710; d at Halifax 12 Aug 1762). Missionary to the MICMAC, Maillard was a brilliant linguist who perfected a system of written symbols for the Micmac language.

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    https://development.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/images/tce_placeholder.jpg?v=e9dca980c9bdb3aa11e832e7ea94f5d9 Pierre Maillard
  • Article


    The terms of settlement promised religious freedom, except to Roman Catholics, but the Church of England initially had advantages and gave leadership for schooling youths. Most of the settlers were Congregationalists.

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    https://d2ttikhf7xbzbs.cloudfront.net/media/media/b025b87d-c65d-40cc-af2a-c487a30e8c2c.jpg Planters
  • Article


    Porkeater [French, mangeur de lard ], in the parlance of the fur trade, was a derogatory term for a Voyageur hired by the North West Company who made only the short run between Montréal and Grand Portage (and not into the North-West) and whose staple diet was pork, unlike the Winterer, or homme du nord, who made do with fish and pemmican. Later it came to refer to any voyageur who was a newcomer to...

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    https://development.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/images/tce_placeholder.jpg?v=e9dca980c9bdb3aa11e832e7ea94f5d9 Porkeater
  • Article

    Portia White

    Portia May White, contralto, teacher (born 24 June 1911 in Truro, NS; died 13 February 1968 in Toronto, ON). Portia White was the first Black Canadian concert singer to win international acclaim. She was considered one of the best classical singers of the 20th century. Her voice was described by one critic as “a gift from heaven.” She was often compared to the celebrated African American contralto Marian Anderson. The Nova Scotia Talent Trust was established in 1944 specifically to enable White to concentrate on her professional career. She was named a “person of national historic significance” by the Government of Canada in 1995.

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    https://d2ttikhf7xbzbs.cloudfront.net/!feature-img-thumbnails/port-white-twe.jpg Portia White
  • Article

    Pitikwahanapiwiyin (Poundmaker)

    Pitikwahanapiwiyin (Poundmaker), Cree chief (born circa 1842 in central SK; died 4 July 1886 in Blackfoot Crossing, AB). Remembered as a great leader, Pitikwahanapiwiyin strove to protect the interests of his people during the negotiation of Treaty 6. Considered a peacemaker, he did not take up arms in the North-West Resistance. However, a young and militant faction of his band did participate in the conflict, resulting in Pitikwahanapiwiyin’s arrest and imprisonment for treason. His legacy as a peacemaker lives on among many Cree peoples, including the Poundmaker Cree Nation in Saskatchewan.

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    https://d2ttikhf7xbzbs.cloudfront.net/!feature-img-thumbnails/poundmaker-th.jpg Pitikwahanapiwiyin (Poundmaker)
  • Article


    Based on archaeological evidence, the earliest permanent human habitation in the Eastern North American Arctic began roughly 5,000 years ago. These first humans of the North American Arctic are referred to as the “Palaeo-Inuit.” They likely crossed the Bering Strait from Chukotka (northeastern Siberia). Inuit oral histories call the earliest people of the Arctic “Tuniit”. The Palaeo-Inuit lived for thousands of years until roughly 700 years ago. They are culturally and genetically distinct from early Inuit. Early Inuit are sometimes called “Thule” and are direct ancestors of modern Inuit. However, research on the Palaeo-Inuit and Inuit is ongoing and may change.

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    https://d2ttikhf7xbzbs.cloudfront.net/PreDorset/Figure3RaisedBeachRidgeIllustration.jpg Pre-Dorset
  • Article

    Prime Minister of Canada

    The prime minister (PM) is the head of the federal government. It is the most powerful position in Canadian politics. Prime ministers are not specifically elected to the position; instead, the PM is typically the leader of the party that has the most seats in the House of Commons. The prime minister controls the governing party and speaks for it; names senators and senior judges for appointment; and appoints and dismisses all members of Cabinet. As chair of Cabinet, the PM controls its agenda and greatly influences the activities and priorities of Parliament. In recent years, a debate has emerged about the growing power of prime ministers, and whether this threatens other democratic institutions.

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    https://d2ttikhf7xbzbs.cloudfront.net/media/media/5df52fa3-73b2-41b8-bee2-e20d15ed0875.jpg Prime Minister of Canada
  • Article

    Prince Rupert of the Rhine

    Prince Rupert of the Rhine, Duke of Cumberland, military commander, privateer, administrator, artist, scientist, first governor of the Hudson’s Bay Company and founding member of the Royal African Company (born 17 December 1619 in Prague, Bohemia [now Czech Republic]; died 29 November 1682 in London, England [now United Kingdom]). A nephew of King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland, Rupert was a cavalry general and privateer during the English Civil Wars (1642–51). He was the first close relative of an English monarch to cross the Atlantic Ocean. Following the Restoration of the English monarchy in 1660, Rupert introduced Pierre-Esprit Radisson and Médard Chouart des Grosseilliers to his cousin King Charles II and persuaded the king to grant a royal charter to the Hudson’s Bay Company. Rupert’s Land and Prince Rupert, British Columbia, are named after Prince Rupert of the Rhine.

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    https://d2ttikhf7xbzbs.cloudfront.net/PrinceRupert/Peter_Lely_-_Prince_Rupert_of_the_Rhine_-_Google_Art_Project.jpg Prince Rupert of the Rhine
  • Article

    Sheila Na Geira

    According to legend, Sheila Na Geira (also spelled NaGeira and Nagira) was an Irish aristocrat or princess who, 300 or 400 years ago, while travelling between France and Ireland, was captured by a Dutch warship and then rescued by British privateers. She fell in love and was married to one of the privateers, Lieutenant Gilbert Pike. They settled at western Conception Bay. By the early 20th century, the legend was being told as part of Newfoundland’s oral tradition, and has since been popularized by poems, novels, scholarly articles and several plays.

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    https://d2ttikhf7xbzbs.cloudfront.net/dreamstime_resize_33120989-2.jpg Sheila Na Geira
  • Article

    Canadian Prisoners of War

    Prisoners of War (POWs) are members of the military captured in wartime by the enemy. Since the late 19th century, international rules have governed the treatment of POWs, although these are not always followed. Thousands of Canadians have endured time as POWs in conflicts ranging from the First World War to the Korean War.

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    https://d2ttikhf7xbzbs.cloudfront.net/media/media/5be6fdf8-a437-4dbf-9898-d96aa6cd17eb.jpg Canadian Prisoners of War
  • Article

    Quebec Film History: 1970 to 1989

    This entry presents an overview of Québec cinema, from the burgeoning of a distinctly Québec cinema in the 1970s, to the production explosion that followed Denys Arcand’s Le déclin de l’empire américain (1986). It highlights the most important films, whether in terms of box office success or international acclaim, and covers both narrative features and documentaries. It also draws attention to an aspect of filmmaking that still has difficulty finding its place: women's cinema.

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    https://d2ttikhf7xbzbs.cloudfront.net/media/media/aa8cc00a-320d-4447-bb88-20c45fede6e0.jpg Quebec Film History: 1970 to 1989
  • Article

    Queen Anne

    Anne, Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland from 1702 to 1707, Queen of Great Britain and Ireland from 1707 to 1714 (born 6 February 1665; died 1 August 1714 in London, United Kingdom). Anne’s reign was dominated by the War of the Spanish Succession (Queen Anne’s War), which resulted in France ceding the Hudson Bay watershed, Acadia (New Brunswick and Nova Scotia) and Newfoundland to Great Britain under the Treaty of Utrecht. In 1710, Anne received Indigenous leaders known as the Four Kings of Canada, setting precedents for the modern relationship between Indigenous peoples and the Crown. The death of Anne’s last surviving child, William, resulted in the passage of the 1701 of Act of Settlement, which determines the royal line of succession in the United Kingdom, Canada and the other 13 Commonwealth realms to the present day.

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    https://d2ttikhf7xbzbs.cloudfront.net/QueenAnne/Queen-Anne-William-Duke-of-Gloucester.jpg Queen Anne
  • Macleans

    Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother (Obituary)

    This article was originally published in Maclean’s magazine on April 8, 2002. Partner content is not updated.

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    https://development.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/images/tce_placeholder.jpg?v=e9dca980c9bdb3aa11e832e7ea94f5d9 Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother (Obituary)