Money | The Canadian Encyclopedia

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  • Article

    Bailouts in Canada

    A bailout consists of providing financial help to a business or to the wider economy during times of trouble.

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  • Article

    Bank Rate

    The bank rate is the minimum interest rate charged by the Bank of Canada in its role as lender of last resort on short-term loans to the chartered banks and other members of the Canadian Payments Association that maintain deposits with the Bank, as well as to investment dealers.

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  • Article

    Bonds in Canada

    A bond is a tool that businesses, governments and other organizations use to borrow money. More specifically, it is a loan agreement through which the bond issuer (the borrower) agrees to pay the lender a specified amount by a certain date. Bond agreements generally also include interest payments. While the borrower usually pays the lender interest on the loan, bonds sometimes have negative interest, meaning the lender pays interest to hold the bond. Bonds and debt financing are important tools for funding large infrastructure projects and wars. (See Canada Savings Bonds; Victory Loans.)

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  • Article

    Capital in Canada

    In economics, capital traditionally refers to the wealth owned or employed by an individual or a business. This wealth can exist in the form of money or property. Definitions of capital are constantly evolving, however. For example, in some contexts it is synonymous with equity. Social capital can refer to positive outcomes of interactions between people or to the effective functioning of groups. Human capital refers to people’s experience, skills and education, viewed as an economic resource.

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  • Article

    Capitalism in Canada

    Capitalism is an economic system in which private owners control a country’s trade and business sector for their personal profit. It contrasts with communism, in which property effectively belongs to the state (see also Marxism). Canada has a “mixed” economy, positioned between these extremes. The three levels of government decide how to allocate much of the country’s wealth through taxing and spending.

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  • Article

    Coins and Tokens

    Coins are issued by governments for use as money. A quantity of coins issued at one time, or a series of coins issued under one authority, is called a coinage. Tokens are issued as a substitute for coinage, usually by private individuals or organizations such as merchants and banks. Canada’s complex political history has meant that Canadian numismatists have an astonishing variety of coins, coinages and tokens to collect and study.

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  • Article

    Consumer Credit

    Canadian consumers obtain consumer credit whenever they purchase goods or services on account, or whenever they borrow funds to finance purchases already made. The most common type of consumer credit arrangements involve cash loans, usually to finance retail purchases on instalments.

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  • Macleans

    Counterfeit Plague

    SOME COUNTERFEIT MONEY is easy to spot. A veteran RCMP officer recalls once seeing a particularly lame bill photocopied in black and white, then coloured in with crayons.This article was originally published in Maclean's Magazine on January 20, 2003

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  • Article

    Credit Card

    A credit card is a card authorizing the holder to make purchases on credit. Credit cards are issued by financial institutions and non-financial businesses (eg, department stores, gasoline companies).

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  • Macleans

    Debate Over Common Canadian/US Dollar

    This article was originally published in Maclean’s magazine on July 5, 1999. Partner content is not updated. There was a time when it was one of those textbook facts drummed into the heads of schoolchildren, never to slip the mind: Canada and the United States share the longest undefended border in the world.

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  • Article

    Debt in Canada

    A debt is something that one owes to another. While debt can take many forms, the term usually refers to money owed. In a Canadian context, debts have become an increasing concern during the past three decades. According to Statistics Canada, at the end of the second quarter of 2020, Canadian non-financial businesses, governments and households owed almost $7.1 trillion in debts. That works out to roughly $186,000 per person. (See also Public Debt.)

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  • Article

    Canadian Dollar (CAD)

    The Canadian dollar, also known as the loonie, for the loon on the $1 coin, is the currency of Canada. Its international currency code is CAD and its symbol $, or C$, to distinguish it from other dollar currencies. As money, it is the measure of value in which all prices in Canada are expressed and the medium of exchange for goods and services. It is divided into 100 cents (¢) and available in material form as coins circulated by the Royal Canadian Mint and banknotes circulated by the Bank of Canada.

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  • Macleans

    Dollar Falls

    In Quebec, they call it referendum fever. And of all those who fell into its grip last week, perhaps no one was more surprised than René Lepage, director of the community health clinic in the lower St. Lawrence River town of Matane.This article was originally published in Maclean's Magazine on September 25, 1995

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  • Collection

    Economics in Canada

    Economics is a discipline that studies the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services. Economists study these issues from the perspective of macroeconomics or microeconomics. This collection brings together articles related to the history and study of economics in Canada.

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  • Article

    Equity in Canada

    Equity is the monetary value of a business or property, beyond any liens or related debts. The term generally refers to “shareholders’ equity.” Shareholders’ equity is an ideal figure that stands for the amount of money that shareholders would get if the company liquidated its assets and paid its debts. In informal usage, the term equities has evolved to mean publicly traded stocks.

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