Social Trends | The Canadian Encyclopedia

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Displaying 1-14 of 14 results
  • Macleans

    Aboriginal TV Launched

    Long before the arrival of European visitors, the Cree of northern Saskatchewan used the area's rivers for communication. Travellers carried information by canoe from community to community.This article was originally published in Maclean's Magazine on September 6, 1999

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  • Article

    Alberta Culture and Multiculturalism

    Alberta Culture and Multiculturalism (Alberta Culture until 1987). Department established in 1975 by the government of the province of Alberta.

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  • Article

    Antigonish Movement

    Antigonish Movement, a social and economic movement sponsored by the Extension Department of St Francis Xavier University, Antigonish, Nova Scotia.

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  • Article


    Bannock is a form of bread that served as a staple in the diets of early settlers and fur traders. Most Indigenous nations in North America have some version of bannock. Inuit call it palauga, Mi’kmaq luskinikn, and Ojibwe ba‘wezhiganag. The word derives from the Gaelic bannach, meaning morsel, which in turn likely came from the Latin panis, which means bread. Bannock is usually unleavened, oval-shaped and flat. The version that we know today came from Scotland. In its most rudimentary form, it is made of flour, water, and fat or lard. Milk, salt, and sugar are often added, depending on the recipe. It is traditionally cooked by mixing the ingredients into a large, round biscuit and baked in a frying pan. Today, most often, bannock is baked in the oven, making it heavy and dense; or it is pan-fried, light and fluffy; or it is deep-fried.

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  • Article


    Chiac (also spelled chiak or chiaque) is a specific type of discursive switching between French and English among individuals who are highly bilingual and have Acadian French as their mother tongue but Canadian English as their first or second language.

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  • Article

    Computers and Canadian Society

    Canadians use computers in many aspects of their daily lives. Eighty-four per cent of Canadian families have a computer in the home, and many people rely on these devices for work and education. Nearly everyone under the age of 45 uses a computer every day, including mobile phones that are as capable as a laptop or tablet computer. With the widespread use of networked computers facilitated by the Internet, Canadians can purchase products, do their banking, make reservations, share and consume media, communicate and perform many other tasks online. Advancements in computer technologies such as cloud computing, social media, artificial intelligence and the Internet of Things are having a significant impact on Canadian society. While these and other uses of computers offer many benefits, they also present societal challenges related to Internet connectivity, the digital divide, privacy and crime.

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  • Article

    Gender in Canada

    This article is an overview of contemporary issues related to gender in Canada. Gender refers to the characteristics associated with women/girls and men/boys. These include norms, behaviours and roles. This article explores change and continuity in gender norms and roles in Canada since 1960. It also addresses current challenges and issues related to gender in Canada. Demographic changes, the women’s liberation movement and the sexual revolution caused and reflected major social changes in gender norms for women and men. While gender roles have become more flexible since the 1960s, the power of older norms and roles continues, as does the belief in a gender binary (the idea that there are only two genders: women and men). Contemporary issues around gender include pay equity; the “boy crisis”; the rights of trans, gender-diverse, non-binary and Two-Spirit persons; and the impact of colonial systems on traditional Indigenous gender roles.

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  • Article

    Impact of COVID-19 on Remote Work at Canadian Businesses

    During the COVID-19 pandemic, many Canadians have worked from home. This shift to remote work has aimed to slow the spread of the coronavirus by reducing contact between people. To gauge the impact of the pandemic on remote work at Canadian businesses, Statistics Canada conducted a nationwide survey in 2020. The graphs below show some of its findings. The first graph shows the percentage of businesses, in each province and the three territories, that had more than half of their workforce working remotely a) before the pandemic and b) on 29 May 2020, during the pandemic. The second graph shows the percentage of businesses which expected that more than half their workforce would continue to work remotely after COVID-19.

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  • Article


    Joual is the name given, in specific sociological and socio-historical situations, to the variety of French spoken in Québec.

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  • Article

    Refus global

    Refus global was a manifesto published in 1948 and signed by 16 figures from Quebec’s artistic community. It challenged the traditional values of Quebec. The manifesto also fostered an opening-up of Quebec society to international thought. (See also Quiet Revolution.)

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  • Article

    Refus Global Manifesto

    Refus Global Manifesto We are the offspring of modest French-Canadian families, working class or lower middle class, who, ever since their arrival from the Old Country, have always remained French and Catholic through resistance to the conqueror, through strong attachment to the past, by choice and sentimental pride and out of sheer necessity. We are the settlers who, in 1760, were first thrust into the fortress of fear, the usual refuge of the vanquished, and...

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  • Macleans

    Straight Edge Kids

    It's Saturday night in a downtown Toronto club. The music is throbbing, cigarette smoke fills the air, drinks are being served as quickly as the waitresses can deliver, and singles scan the room for company. In other words, it's another night of sex, drugs and rock 'n' roll. But there's a twist.This article was originally published in Maclean's Magazine on May 17, 1999

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  • Article

    Suicide in Canada

    This article contains sensitive material that may not be suitable for all audiences. To reach the Canada Suicide Prevention Service, contact 1-833-456-4566. Suicide is the act of taking one’s own life voluntarily and intentionally. Suicide was decriminalized in Canada in 1972. Physician-assisted suicide was decriminalized in 2015. Suicide is among the leading causes of death in Canada, particularly among men. On average, approximately 4,000 Canadians die by suicide every year — about 11 suicides per 100,000 people in Canada. This rate is higher for men and among Indigenous communities. Suicide is usually the result of a combination of factors; these can include addiction and mental illness (especially depression), physical deterioration, financial difficulties, marriage breakdown and lack of social and medical support.

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  • Article


    Valérie (1969), the first of a group of erotic films now known as "maple-syrup porno," launched the career of director Denis HÉROUX.

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