Primary Sources | The Canadian Encyclopedia

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  • Article

    Historical Sources

    Historians use written, oral and visual sources to develop and support their interpretations of historical events. The historical discipline divides source materials into two categories: primary sources and secondary sources. Both categories are flexible and depend on the subject and era a historian is investigating. 

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    https://d2ttikhf7xbzbs.cloudfront.net/media/media/58da114a-b3c6-46ec-acb3-f525c1bcca6a.jpg Historical Sources
  • Article

    Historical Thinking Concepts

    The six “Historical Thinking Concepts” were developed by The Historical Thinking Project, which was led by Dr. Peter Seixas of the University of British Columbia and educational expert Jill Colyer. The project identified six key concepts: historical significance, primary source evidence, continuity and change, cause and consequence, historical perspectives and ethical dimensions. Together, these concepts form the basis of historical inquiry. The project was funded by the Department of Canadian Heritage and The History Education Network (THEN/HiER). Seixas and Tom Morton published a book, The Big Six: Historical Thinking Concepts, that expanded on these concepts.

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    https://d2ttikhf7xbzbs.cloudfront.net/media/ht-concepts-en.jpg Historical Thinking Concepts
  • Article

    Jack Henry Hilton (Primary Source)

    "We landed in France on a metal strip. I had a sniper bullet go across my head as I landed as I was taxing in and we slept in slit trenches and tents, ate bully beef and did our, we attacked the Germans." See below for Mr. Hilton's entire testimony. Please be advised that Memory Project primary sources may deal with personal testimony that reflect the speaker’s recollections and interpretations of events. Individual testimony does not necessarily reflect the views of the Memory Project and Historica Canada.

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    https://d2ttikhf7xbzbs.cloudfront.net/MemoryProject/JackHenryHilton/7680_original.jpg Jack Henry Hilton (Primary Source)
  • Memory Project Archive

    Albert Joseph Thomas (Primary Source)

    "Gosh, I wonder if it could be possible? So I asked her a question and she says, yes. Well, I said, you’re looking at him. And she started crying. I’m pretty proud about what I did." Albert Joseph Thomas served in the army during the Second World War. See below for Mr. Thomas' entire testimony. Please be advised that Memory Project primary sources may deal with personal testimony that reflect the speaker’s recollections and interpretations of events. Individual testimony does not necessarily reflect the views of the Memory Project and Historica Canada.

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    https://d2ttikhf7xbzbs.cloudfront.net/MemoryProject/AlbertJosephThomas/1513_original.jpg Albert Joseph Thomas (Primary Source)
  • Memory Project Archive

    Alec MacInnis (Primary Source)

    "A lot of children die in wars. We have to find a way to solve problems without killing on some battlefield, where the innocent become casualties." Alec MacInnis served in the army during the Second World War. See below for Mr. MacInnis' entire testimony. Please be advised that Memory Project primary sources may deal with personal testimony that reflect the speaker’s recollections and interpretations of events. Individual testimony does not necessarily reflect the views of the Memory Project and Historica Canada.

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    https://d2ttikhf7xbzbs.cloudfront.net/MemoryProject/AlecMacInnes/284_original.jpg Alec MacInnis (Primary Source)
  • Memory Project Archive

    Alex Polowin (Primary Source)

    Alex Polowin was a Lithuanian-Jewish Canadian who served in the Royal Canadian Navy on HMCS Huron, a Tribal class destroyer. Polowin escorted convoys to Murmasnk to supply the Soviets, hunted down the battleship Scharnhorst, and supported the amphibious invasion of Normandy in 1944. Listen to Polowin describe his motivations for enlisting in the Navy and the operations in which he took part. Please be advised that Memory Project primary sources may deal with personal testimony that reflect the speaker’s recollections and interpretations of events. Individual testimony does not necessarily reflect the views of the Memory Project and Historica Canada.

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    https://d2ttikhf7xbzbs.cloudfront.net/MemoryProject/AlexPolowin/9133_original.jpg Alex Polowin (Primary Source)
  • Memory Project Archive

    Alexander “Alex” van Bibber (Primary Source)

    "It was all equal while we were in the army. The big mess up was on discharge." Alex van Bibber served in the army during the Second World War.See below for Mr. van Bibber's entire testimony. Please be advised that Memory Project primary sources may deal with personal testimony that reflect the speaker’s recollections and interpretations of events. Individual testimony does not necessarily reflect the views of the Memory Project and Historica Canada.

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    https://d2ttikhf7xbzbs.cloudfront.net/MemoryProject/AlexanderAlexvanBibber/4248_original.jpg Alexander “Alex” van Bibber (Primary Source)
  • Memory Project Archive

    Alphonse Martel (Primary Source)

    "That’s for sure, when some of our friends died like that… We would say: “Where is so-and-so?” And they would reply: “You didn’t hear? How come? He died yesterday.”" See below for Mr. Martel's entire testimony. Please be advised that Memory Project primary sources may deal with personal testimony that reflect the speaker’s recollections and interpretations of events. Individual testimony does not necessarily reflect the views of the Memory Project and Historica Canada.

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    https://d2ttikhf7xbzbs.cloudfront.net/MemoryProject/AlphonseMartel/9380_original.jpg Alphonse Martel (Primary Source)
  • Memory Project Archive

    André-Paul Turin (Primary Source)

    Please be advised that Memory Project primary sources may deal with personal testimony that reflect the speaker’s recollections and interpretations of events. Individual testimony does not necessarily reflect the views of the Memory Project and Historica Canada.

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    https://d2ttikhf7xbzbs.cloudfront.net/mpsb/Andre-Paul-Turin/618_original.jpg André-Paul Turin (Primary Source)
  • Memory Project Archive

    Andrew Kurn “Andy” Wong (Primary Source)

    "So he said, “Geez, I noticed you’re a Canadian.” I said, “Yes.” He said, “How do you like the American ships?” I said, “Gee, they’re like castles compared to the Canadian.”" Andrew Kurn “Andy” Wong served with the Merchant Navy during the Second World War. See below for Mr. Wong's entire testimony. Please be advised that Memory Project primary sources may deal with personal testimony that reflect the speaker’s recollections and interpretations of events. Individual testimony does not necessarily reflect the views of the Memory Project and Historica Canada.

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    https://d2ttikhf7xbzbs.cloudfront.net/MemoryProject/AndrewKurnAndyWong/2893_original.jpg Andrew Kurn “Andy” Wong (Primary Source)
  • Memory Project Archive

    Arthur Philip Fraser (Primary Source)

    "So we landed and when I jump off the boat and look around, and I saw so many dead soldiers or wounded, I was really surprised to see that." Arthur Philip Fraser recalls his role in the Dieppe Raid and experience as a prisoner of war. See below for Mr. Fraser's entire testimony. Please be advised that Memory Project primary sources may deal with personal testimony that reflect the speaker’s recollections and interpretations of events. Individual testimony does not necessarily reflect the views of the Memory Project and Historica Canada.

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    https://d2ttikhf7xbzbs.cloudfront.net/mpsb/Arthur-Philip-Fraser/1895_538.jpg Arthur Philip Fraser (Primary Source)
  • Memory Project Archive

    Babs Fraser Drennan (Primary Source)

    Babs Fraser Drennan served in the Women's Royal Naval Service during the Second World War. Read and listen to her testimony below. Please be advised that Memory Project primary sources may deal with personal testimony that reflect the speaker’s recollections and interpretations of events. Individual testimony does not necessarily reflect the views of the Memory Project and Historica Canada.

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    https://d2ttikhf7xbzbs.cloudfront.net/mpsb/Babs-Fraser-Drennan/7823_original.jpg Babs Fraser Drennan (Primary Source)
  • Memory Project Archive

    Beatrice Mary Geary (née Shreiber) (Primary Source)

    "The women had never had jobs like this before and we wanted to prove ourselves. I think that’s part of it. And the men accepted us." Beatrice Mary Geary served in the Women's Royal Naval Service during the Second World War. See below for Mrs. Geary's entire testimony. Please be advised that Memory Project primary sources may deal with personal testimony that reflect the speaker’s recollections and interpretations of events. Individual testimony does not necessarily reflect the views of the Memory Project and Historica Canada.

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    https://d2ttikhf7xbzbs.cloudfront.net/MemoryProject/BeatriceMaryGeary/2800_original.jpg Beatrice Mary Geary (née Shreiber) (Primary Source)
  • Memory Project Archive

    Bernard Marquis (Primary Source)

    The transcription in English is not available at this moment. Please refer to the transcript in French.Please be advised that Memory Project primary sources may deal with personal testimony that reflect the speaker’s recollections and interpretations of events. Individual testimony does not necessarily reflect the views of the Memory Project and Historica Canada.

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    https://d2ttikhf7xbzbs.cloudfront.net/mpsb/Bernard-Marquis/14153_original.jpg Bernard Marquis (Primary Source)
  • Memory Project Archive

    Bertha Annie “Bertie” Hull (née Herr) (Primary Source)

    "And it was rather a sad time for us because so many of the officers that came back that were wounded, they’d probably been ones we’d danced with." Bertha Annie "Bertie" Hull served as a nurse during the Second World War. Read and listen to her testimony below.  Please be advised that Memory Project primary sources may deal with personal testimony that reflect the speaker’s recollections and interpretations of events. Individual testimony does not necessarily reflect the views of the Memory Project and Historica Canada.

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    https://d2ttikhf7xbzbs.cloudfront.net/MemoryProject/BerthaAnnieHall/8178_original.jpg Bertha Annie “Bertie” Hull (née Herr) (Primary Source)

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