Browse "Law Enforcement"

Displaying 81-100 of 107 results


In a primarily rural society, such as 19th-century Canada, privacy was basically a territorial concept. Today, privacy tends to be defined not only territorially but as the right of individuals to determine when, how and to what extent information about themselves is to be communicated to others.


Probation and Parole

Probation is a correctional method under which convicted offenders are supervised in the community instead of imprisonment, or after a period of imprisonment has been served.


Restitution (Legal)

Restitution is a legal response calculated to take away a gain or enrichment that is considered to be inappropriate. It developed to address situations of unjust enrichment that were not adequately addressed by the laws of tort or contract.



Robbery is one of the earliest and most serious felonies and was once punishable by death. Robbery is a serious, indictable offence under the Canadian CRIMINAL CODE (s302), punishable by life imprisonment.


Royal Prerogative of Mercy

Royal Prerogative of Mercy The federal Cabinet has the power to pardon anyone who has been convicted of a criminal offence. The pardon can be free or conditional. The effect of a free pardon is that the person is deemed never to have committed the offence for which they were convicted.


Rule of Law

The rule of law is an underlying constitutional principle requiring government to be conducted according to law and making all public officers answerable for their acts in the ordinary courts (see ADMINISTRATIVE LAW).


Safety Standards

Safety Standards, documents or codes which describe characteristics or usage for products, materials and services, are intended to protect citizens from the hazards of technology.


Social Justice

 With the arrival of INDUSTRIALIZATION over the course of the nineteenth century, early attempts to aid the poor were linked with ideas of moral and social reform and were intertwined with religion.


Taxation in Canada

Taxes are compulsory payments by individuals and corporations to government. They are levied to finance government services, redistribute income, and influence the behaviour of consumers and investors.


Toronto Bans Smoking

The doors of The Pilot Tavern were wide open last Wednesday evening, but the unseasonably cool breezes wafting through the popular Toronto pub did little to clear the air. Like the tobacco haze hanging over the long, dark bar, a tough, new antismoking bylaw threatened to poison the atmosphere.


Traffic Law in Canada

​The regulation of motor vehicle traffic is one of the greatest legal challenges of the 21st century. Governments make traffic laws and statutes, but common law rules still play an important role.



Treason is probably the oldest and most serious offence in political society, with the possible exception of murder. The earliest English treason legislation, which dates from 1351, is the basis of all treason legislation in the English-speaking world.


Ultra Vires-Intra Vires

Ultra Vires-Intra Vires Ultra vires [Lat, "beyond the powers"] is used in CONSTITUTIONAL LAW by the courts who must decide the respective competences of Parliament and provincial legislatures.