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London

  London, Ont, incorporated as a city in 1855, population 366 151 (2011c), 352 395 (2006c). The City of London, the seat of Middlesex County, is centrally located in the southwest peninsula of the province, on the Québec-Windsor corridor midway between Toronto (185 km) and Windsor (190 km).

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Harbour Grace

Harbour Grace, NL, incorporated as a town in 1945, population 3131 (2011c), 3074 (2006c). The Town of Harbour Grace, with its commodious harbour in western Conception Bay, was named for the French Havre de Grâce.

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St Andrews (Man)

St Andrews, Manitoba, incorporated as a rural municipality in 1880, population 11 875 (2011c), 11 359 (2006c). The Rural Municipality of St Andrews stretches from a boundary 8 km north of WINNIPEG to Winnipeg Beach and Netley Marsh at the southern tip of Lake Winnipeg.

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Rimouski

In the 18th century, agriculture and seasonal fishing were the only occupations, but the area experienced some growth when Québec City merchants, including William Price, began to develop the forest resources and built several sawmills.

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Québec City

Québec City, Québec, founded in 1608, population 531,902 (2016 c), 516,576 (2011 c). Québec City, the capital of the province of Québec, is located on the north shore of the St. Lawrence River where it meets the Rivière Saint-Charles. Here, the St. Lawrence narrows to a width of just over 1 km, and navigation is made difficult by a group of islands, the largest of which is Île d'Orléans. Cap-Diamant, a promontory with an elevation of 98 m, dominates the site and was used effectively as a fortification, earning Québec City the name "Gibraltar of North America." The name "Québec" is probably derived from an Algonquian word meaning "narrowing of the river."

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Old Montreal

Old Montreal is the historic district of the city of Montreal, located in the south-central part of Montreal Island and bounded by the St. Lawrence River to the south, Saint-Antoine Street to the north, McGill Street to the west and Saint-Hubert Street to the east. In the second half of the 20th century, this area came under pressure from urban change, as business and port activity shifted elsewhere, depriving Old Montreal of its historic roles. But in the 1960s, a long process began that completely transformed it into a heritage district (it was at this time that the name Old Montreal came into common use). The designation of the Arrondissement historique de Montréal by the Quebec government in 1964 marked an important step in this transformation. With massive investments from the three levels of government, as well as from businesses and individuals, a lengthy rehabilitation effort began. Nearly 60 years later, visitors can now follow the traces of Montreal’s history back to pre-colonial times, and the changes that the city has undergone since the first European settlers arrived in 1642.

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Sudbury

Greater Sudbury, Ontario, incorporated as a city in 2001, population 164,689 (2016 census), 163,067 (2011 census). The judicial seat for the District of Sudbury, the City of Greater Sudbury is located on the western shore of Ramsey Lake, about 60 km north of Georgian Bay. When incorporated in 2001, it replaced the former Regional Municipality of Sudbury (1973–2000) and City of Sudbury (1930–2000). The city owes much of its development to the mining industry, in particular the mining of nickel. The largest urban area in northeastern Ontario, Greater Sudbury now offers a concentration of business, cultural and educational services and is recognized for the impressive regreening program that it has been carrying out since the 1970s.

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Vancouver

Vancouver, British Columbia, incorporated as a city in 1886, population 631,486 (2016c), 603,502 (2011c). Vancouver is the largest city in British Columbia and the third largest census metropolitan area in Canada. The City of Vancouver lies on a peninsula in the southwest corner of the province's mainland. Two surrounding waterways — Burrard Inlet and the Strait of Georgia — provide a sheltered deep-sea port and convenient access to the Pacific Ocean, while the Fraser River offers an easy route to the rich agricultural lands of the Fraser River Lowland and the interior. Railways and highways give easy access to the interior.

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Hamilton

Hamilton, Ontario, incorporated as a city in 1846, population 536,917 (2016 c), 519,949 (2011 c). The City of Hamilton is situated at the west end of Lake Ontario, on Burlington Bay, 68 km southwest of Toronto, and 66 km west of Niagara Falls and the American border. As part of the reorganization of municipal governments in Ontario, the boundaries of the city were enlarged in 2001 to include much of the surrounding suburban and rural area, including the former towns of Ancaster, Dundas, Flamborough and Stoney Creek, and the former township of Glanbrook. The city is Canada's largest steel producer and a major Great Lakes port.

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North Vancouver

North Vancouver, British Columbia, incorporated as a district in 1891, population 85,935 (2016 census), 84,412 (2011 census); also, a separate entity incorporated as a city in 1907, population 52,898 (2016 census), 48,196 (2011 census). The district of North Vancouver and the city of North Vancouver are located in southwestern British Columbia, adjacent to the city of Vancouver. Situated on the north shore of Burrard Inlet, North Vancouver extends from the Capilano River on the west to beyond Deep Cove on the east. The district surrounds the city, which is centered on Lonsdale Avenue, except at the waterfront. Elevations in North Vancouver range from sea level to 1,400 metres. The North Shore mountains — such as Grouse and Seymour — form a scenic backdrop.

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Gimli

Gimli, Manitoba, rural municipality, population 6,181 (2016 census), 5,845 (2011 census). Gimli was incorporated as a town from 1947 to 2003 after which it was reunited into the Rural Municipality of Gimli. (The original rural municipality was incorporated in 1887 and the village of Gimli separated from it in 1908.) The community is located on the west shore of Lake Winnipeg, 76 km north of Winnipeg.

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Saint John

Saint John, NB, incorporated as a city in 1785, population 67,575 (2016 census), 70,063 (2011 census). The City of Saint John, the second largest city in New Brunswick, is located at the mouth of the Saint John River on the Bay of Fundy.

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Peterborough

Founded in 1825, Peterborough was named the following year for Peterborough, New Hampshire, and intended as a compliment for Peter ROBINSON, who directed the settlement of a large number of Irish immigrants in the area.

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Gatineau

Gatineau, Quebec, incorporated as a city in 2002, population 291,041 (2021 census), 276,245 (2016 census). Gatineau was formed in 2002 following the amalgamation of the municipalities of Aylmer, Buckingham, Gatineau, Hull and Masson-Angers. The city is part of Canada’s National Capital Region. Gatineau’s city council consists of a mayor and 18 councillors elected by district.

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Iqaluit

Iqaluit, Nunavut, incorporated as a city in 2001, population 7,740 (2016 c), 6,699 (2011 c). Iqaluit is the capital and largest community in Canada’s newest territory, Nunavut. It is also the territory's only city. Iqaluit is situated at the northeast head of Frobisher Bay, on southern Baffin Island. In an area long used by the Inuit and their ancestors, it is surrounded by hills close to the Sylvia Grinnell River and looks across the bay to the mountains of the Meta Incognita Peninsula.

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North-West Territories (1870–1905)

The North-West Territories was the first Canadian territory. It was Established on 15 July 1870. As a territory, the region became part of Canada. But it lacked the population, economic and infrastructure resources to attain provincial status. It thus fell under the jurisdiction of the federal government. It covered a vast area, stretching west from a disputed boundary with Labrador, across the northern portions of present-day Quebec and Ontario, through the Prairies to British Columbia, and north from the 49th parallel to the Arctic Ocean. The territory was subject to numerous boundary changes before 1905. At that time, the provinces of Saskatchewan and Alberta were carved out of the southwest portion of the region. In 1906, the remaining territory was renamed the Northwest Territories.

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Vaughan

Vaughan, ON, incorporated as a city in 1991, population 323,103 (2021 census), 306,233 (2016 census). The City of Vaughan — which includes the five constituent communities of Maple, Kleinburg, Concord, Woodbridge and part of Thornhill — is located in the York regional municipality, next to the northwest boundary of metropolitan Toronto. Traditionally an agricultural and milling community, Vaughan’s economy diversified over the latter half of the 20th century as immigration increased and the township developed into a city. Today, Vaughan is a multicultural community with a growing metropolitan core.

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Niagara Falls

Niagara Falls, Ontario, incorporated as a city in 1904, population 88,071 (2016 c), 82,997 (2011 c). The City of Niagara Falls possesses a fame and name that are based on the stunning, world-famous Niagara Falls on the Niagara River. Growth has combined tourism and gambling with railhead developments at this Canadian–US border crossing. In the past the manufacturing industry (including electrochemicals and abrasives) dominated, fuelled by cheap and readily available hydroelectric power.

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Saint-Nicolas

Saint-Nicolas, Quebec, population 23,675 (2019), 16,645 (2001 census). The city of Saint-Nicolas was originally incorporated in 1994 with the amalgamation of the municipalities of Bernières and Saint-Nicolas. Since 2002, Saint-Nicolas is part of the city of Lévis. Saint-Nicolas is located 17 km southwest of Quebec City. Saint-Nicolas is on the south shore of the St. Lawrence River and to the west of Rivière Chaudière. It is a thriving residential suburb of Quebec City. The area is linked to the city of Sainte-Foy, on the opposite shore of the St. Lawrence, by the Pierre-Laporte suspension bridge and the old, cantilever Quebec Bridge. (See also Quebec Bridge Disaster.)