Search for "residential schools"
Six Nations of the Grand River
Six Nations of the Grand River, Ontario, is the common name for both a reserve and a Haudenosaunee First Nation. The reserve, legally known as Six Nations Indian Reserve No. 40, is just over 182 km2, located along the Grand River in southwestern Ontario. As of 2019, Six Nations has 27,559 registered band members, 12,892 of whom live on-reserve. Six Nations is the largest First Nations reserve in Canada by population, and the second largest by size. There are several individual communities within the reserve, the largest of which is Ohsweken, with a population of approximately 1,500. (See also Reserves in Ontario.)
Six Nations is home to the six individual nations that form the Hodinöhsö:ni’ Confederacy (Haudenosaunee). These nations are the Kanyen’kehaka (Mohawk), Onyota’a:ka (Oneida), Onöñda’gega’ (Onondaga), Gayogohono (Cayuga), Onöndowága’ (Seneca) and Skaru:reh (Tuscarora).
Reserves in Ontario
There are 207 reserves in Ontario, held by 127 of Ontario’s 128 First Nations (see also First Nations in Ontario). (Beaverhouse First Nation, first recognized by the federal government as a First Nation in 2022, does not have reserve land.) In 2020, there were 221,822 registered Indians living in Ontario, about 44 per cent of whom lived on reserves. Reserves in Ontario are held by Anishinaabe, Cree, Oji-Cree, Haudenosaunee, Delaware and Algonquin peoples.
Thunder Bay, ON, incorporated as a city in 1970, population 107,909 (2016 census), 108,359 (2011 census). The City of Thunder Bay was created by the amalgamation of the cities of Fort William and Port Arthur and the townships of Neebing and McIntyre. It is located in northwestern Ontario on the west shore of the Lake Superior bay of the same name. Thunder Bay is situated on the traditional territory of the Anishinaabeg, and the land is covered by the Robinson-Superior Treaty. The Port of Thunder Bay is a western stop along the Great Lakes-St Lawrence Seaway. The region’s geography is dominated by the rocks, lakes and forests of the Canadian Shield. Surrounding communities depend on tourism or resource extraction, and look to Thunder Bay for a wide variety of services.
Tyendinaga Mohawk Territory
The Mohawks of the Bay of Quinte are part of the Kanyen’kehá:ka or Mohawk Nation. Kanyen’kehá:ka means “People of the Land of Flint.” The Mohawk Nation is in turn part of the Rotinonhsyón:ni (Haudenosaunee or Six Nations Confederacy), which translates
in English to “People of the Longhouse.”
There are over 10,000 members of the Mohawks of the Bay of Quinte living on Turtle Island and beyond. About 2,200 of these members live on Tyendinaga Mohawk Territory. The Territory is located on the northeastern shore of the Bay of Quinte, just east of Belleville, Ontario.
Sillery has a grand history dating back to the 17th century. It was the site of Canada's first Indian reserve and Jesuit mission, Sillery, on the edge of the St Lawrence. The reserve was funded by Noël Brulart de Sillery (1577-1640), for whom the town was named.
Sainte-Julie is mainly a residential city that prides itself on being "the city in the country.
Maisie Hurley, née Maisie Amy Campbell-Johnston, Vancouver-area political activist, Indigenous ally (see Indigenous Peoples in Canada), newspaper founder and art collector (born 27 November 1887 in Swansea, Wales; died 3 October 1964 in North Vancouver, British Columbia). Although Hurley had no formal legal training or law degree (see Legal Education), she worked on several legal cases and advocated for Indigenous peoples’ basic human rights as well as for changes to the Indian Act. In 1946, Hurley started a newspaper called The Native Voice that aimed to bring attention to important issues concerning Indigenous communities across Canada (see Rights of Indigenous Peoples in Canada). In 2011, Hurley’s collection of Indigenous art was displayed at the North Vancouver Museum.
Music at University of Waterloo
University of Waterloo. Non-denominational university founded in 1957 at Waterloo, Ont, and incorporated in 1959. It came to be noted in particular for its schools of optometry and engineering.
Toronto Feature: Guildwood Village
This text is from the free Toronto in Time app, which was created by The Canadian Encyclopedia and is available from the App Store and the Google Play store. Visit its companion website, which is linked below, to explore all the features of the app online.
Kainai Nation (Blood Tribe)
The Kainai (G-ai-nah) Nation, otherwise known as the Blood Tribe, is a First Nation based in southern Alberta. Kainai Nation holds two reserves, Blood 148 and Blood 148A. Blood 148, the nation’s primary reserve, is the largest First Nation reserve by area in Canada. It covers 1,342.9 km², and is located southwest of the city of Lethbridge, north of the town of Cardston, and east of Pincher Creek. The nation’s second reserve is known as a “timber limit” and is used for hunting and fishing. As of 2021, there are 8,517 people living on the primary reserve, making it one of the most populous reserves in Canada. In total, Kainai Nation has 12,738 registered band members. (See also Reserves in Alberta.)
Rocky Mountain Trench
The Rocky Mountain Trench is a long and deep valley extending approximately 1,500 km from the Bitterroot Valley in northwest Montana through British Columbia to the Liard Plain just south of the Yukon Territory. Its predominantly flat floor is 3–20 km wide and ranges in elevation between 600 m and 1,000 m above sea level. With walls made of sedimentary, volcanic and igneous rock, the Trench is sometimes referred to as the “Valley of a Thousand Peaks” because of the towering mountain ranges on either side: the Rocky Mountains to the east and the Columbia, Omineca and Cassiar mountains to the west. Humans have relied on the rich resources provided by this distinctive landscape from pre-colonial times to the present.
Industrialization brought major residential construction. A second development phase began in 1938 with the opening of International Foils Ltd (Reynolds), which still operates.
Native People's Caravan
The Native People’s Caravan was a cross-country mobile protest that took place in 1974. Its main purpose was to raise awareness about the poor living conditions and discrimination experienced by Indigenous peoples in Canada. It travelled from Vancouver to Ottawa, where the subsequent occupation of a vacant warehouse on Victoria Island, near Parliament Hill, extended into 1975. The caravan brought various Indigenous groups together in protest of broken treaties, as well as a lack of government-supported education, housing and health care. As a result, meetings between Cabinet ministers and Indigenous leaders became more frequent. The protest is remembered as an important turning point in Indigenous activism in Canada.
Music at CEGEPs
CEGEPs (Collèges d'enseignement général et professionel) have supplanted a whole stratum of autonomous schools and colleges.
Carved out of Bois-des-Filion, SAINTE-THÉRÈSE and ROSEMÈRE, Lorraine was set up as an ecologically sensitive, single-family dwelling, residential community by Anchor Investments Limited.
Griffintown was developed in the 19th century as a working-class Irish neighbourhood of Montréal. It underwent several attempts at urban revitalization from the 1980s onwards. Since 2010, there have been a number of controversial real estate developments in the neighbourhood.
The neighbourhood is part of the Sud-Ouest and Ville-Marie boroughs of Montréal. It is located along the Lachine Canal, between Notre-Dame, McGill and Guy streets.
The Bog was Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island’s historically Black neighbourhood. For over 200 years, Black residents have lived on the island in small communities, but from about 1810 to 1900, Black people were concentrated in this small district. The Bog was located in the town’s west end on marshy, undesirable land. It ran from Government Pond and Black Sam’s Bridge in the northwest to Richmond and Rochford streets in the southeast. Black, white and mixed-race people lived there. At its peak, approximately 100 Black Islanders called it home. Today, there is no trace of the neighbourhood as modern government buildings stand where the historic neighbourhood once stood. However, descendants of the Bog still live on the island and many people are pushing for the neighbourhood’s history to be officially commemorated.
Nunatsiavut (meaning “our beautiful land” in Inuktitut) is the homeland of the Labrador Inuit (Labradormiut). The territory covers 72,520km2 of land and 44,030km2 of sea in the northern part of the Labrador Peninsula. On 1 December 2005, the Labrador Inuit celebrated the creation of the Nunatsiavut Government, their own regional government within the province of Newfoundland and Labrador. The Labradormiut became the first Inuit in Canada to achieve self-government. Of the approximately 6,500 beneficiaries, about 2,500 live within the settlement area in five communities: Rigolet, Postville, Makkovik, Hopedale (the legislative capital) and Nain (the administrative capital).
Reserves on Prince Edward Island
There are four reserves on Prince Edward Island, held by two First Nations. Three of these reserves, Morell, Rocky Point and Scotchfort, are held by Abegweit First Nation,
while Lennox Island is held by Lennox Island First Nation. PEI is just one of two provinces, the other being Nova Scotia, that is part of the traditional territory of only one
Indigenous people. In both cases, it is the Mi'kmaq. Of PEI’s 1,405 registered Mi'kmaq (2021), 615 live on the four reserves. The reserves vary in size from less than 1 km
2 to 5.4 km2. Both Lennox Island and Abegweit First Nations are headed by Chiefs, who are required to live on-reserve, and Councillors, who may live on- or off-reserve. Elections are held in a three-year and four-year cycle, respectively.