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Chilliwack (BC)

Chilliwack, British Columbia, incorporated as a city in 1999, population 93,203 (2021 census), 83,788 (2016 census). The city of Chilliwack is located 100 km east of Vancouver on the south shore of the Fraser River. It is governed by a mayor and six councillors elected for four-year terms. The name is derived from the word Ts’elxwéyeqw. According to elder Albert Louie, in Halq’eméylem, the traditional language of the Stó:lō, the word means “going as far as you can go upriver” by canoe on the Chilliwack River.



Sometimes referred to as the “keystone” province because of its position in the centre of the country, Manitoba is bounded by Nunavut and Hudson Bay to the north, Ontario to the east, the United States to the south and Saskatchewan to the west.


Windsor (NS)

Windsor, NS, incorporated as a town in 1878, population 3785 (2011c), 3709 (2006c). The Town of Windsor is located in central Nova Scotia, at the mouth of the Avon and St Croix rivers.



Mission, BC, incorporated as a district municipality in 1969, population 36 426 (2011c), 34 505 (2006c). The District of Mission is located on the north bank ofthe FRASER RIVER, 70 km by road east of VANCOUVER.



Colwood, BC, incorporated as a city in 1985, population 16 093 (2011c), 14 687 (2006c). The City of Colwood is part of Greater Victoria and located ten kilometres west of downtown VICTORIA. Colwood takes its name from the farm run by Captain Edward E.



Langley, BC, incorporated as a district municipality in 1873, population 104 177 (2011c), 93 726 (2006c). The Township of Langley is located about 40 km east of VANCOUVER. The city of Langley, population 25 081 (2011c), 23 606 (2006c), became a separate municipality in 1955.


History of Settlement in the Canadian Prairies

The Canadian Prairies were peopled in six great waves of migration, spanning from prehistory to the present. The migration from Asia, about 13,300 years ago, produced an Indigenous population of 20,000 to 50,000 by about 1640. Between 1640 and 1840, several thousand European and Canadian fur traders arrived, followed by several hundred British immigrants. They created dozens of small outposts and a settlement in the Red River Colony, where the Métis became the largest part of the population. The third wave, from the 1840s to the 1890s, consisted mainly but not solely of Canadians of British heritage. The fourth and by far the largest wave was drawn from many nations, mostly European. It occurred from 1897 to 1929, with a pause (1914–22) during and after the First World War. The fifth wave, drawn from other Canadian provinces and from Europe and elsewhere, commenced in the late 1940s. It lasted through the 1960s. The sixth wave, beginning in the 1970s, drew especially upon peoples of the southern hemisphere. It has continued, with fluctuations, to the present. Throughout the last century, the region has also steadily lost residents, as a result of migration to other parts of Canada, to the United States, and elsewhere.



Moncton, NB, incorporated as a city in 1890, population 71,889 (2016 census),69,074 (2011 census), is the largest city in New Brunswick. The City of Moncton is located in eastern New Brunswick on a bend of the Petitcodiac River. With a population of 144,810 (2016) the Greater Moncton region includes the steadily growing city of Dieppe and the town of Riverview.


Maple Ridge

Maple Ridge, BC, incorporated as a district municipality in 1874, population 76 052 (2011c), 68 949 (2006c). The District of Maple Ridge is located 40 km east of VANCOUVER, bounded by the FRASER RIVER on the south and on the north by the Golden Ears Mountain.



In 1888 the village of Magog separated from the municipality of Magog Township (established 1855) and soon incorporated as a town.



Stellarton, Nova Scotia, was incorporated as a town in 1889 and has a population of 4,485 (2011). It borders the East River, approximately 18 km southeast of Pictou.



Saint-Lambert, Quebec, population 21,861 (2016 census), 21,555 (2011 census). Saint-Lambert was settled beginning in the 17th century. It was first incorporated as a city in 1921 and reincorporated in 2006. Saint-Lambert was amalgamated into the city of Longueuil from 2002 until 2006 when it regained its municipal status. It is located along the South Shore of the St. Lawrence River across from Montreal, and is connected to that city by the Victoria bridge (completed 1859).

Saint-Lambert is situated on the ancestral lands of the Kanyen’kehà:ka. The land remains unceded and is considered Indigenous territory.


Fort Erie

Fort Erie, Ont, incorporated as a town in 1931, population 29 960 (2011c), 29 925 (2006c). The Town of Fort Erie is located at the south entrance to the NIAGARA RIVER, opposite Buffalo, NY.


Habitat 67

Habitat 67 is an experimental urban residential complex designed by Israeli-born architect Moshe Safdie and located in the Cité du Havre neighbourhood south of Montréal’s Old Port sector. Commissioned by the Canadian Corporation for Expo 67, the project derives its name from the theme of the fair, “Man and His World,” and became one of the major pavilions of the exhibition. It is the only remaining structure from Expo 67 to retain its original function. In 2015, the Guardian called Habitat “a functioning icon of 1960s utopianism, and one of that period’s most important buildings.”



The 2 Gowen sites show that hunting tribes were here 6000 years ago. Stratified settlement sites at Tipperary Creek (now Wanuskewin) indicate regular winter habitation by Indigenous peoples.