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Centaur Theatre Company

Centaur Theatre began with an annual budget of $120 000, leasing a 220-seat auditorium in the Old Stock Exchange building at 453 St. François-Xavier Street in Old Montréal. In 1974, the company purchased this historic building and spent $1.3 million in renovations designed by architect Victor PRUS.

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Music Degrees

Degrees. Academic titles conferred upon individuals by universities and colleges to recognize the successful completion of particular programs of study set by those institutions, or (as honorary degrees) to recognize outstanding achievement in the arts, sciences, or humanities.

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Czech Music in Canada

Perhaps the first musically important immigrant to Canada from what later was to be known as Czechoslovakia was Wilhelm Labitzky (violinist, b Becov 1829, d Toronto 1871; son of Joseph Labitzky, 'the waltz king of Bohemia').

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Union Nationale

The Union Nationale was a Québec political party founded in 1935 and dissolved in 1989. The party won six provincial elections between 1936 and 1966.

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St. John’s Election Riot of 1861

On 13 May 1861, 2,000 protesters gathered outside the Colonial Building in St. John’s, Newfoundland. They objected to actions taken by the colony’s governor, Sir Alexander Bannerman, during the recent, highly contentious election; he had defied responsible government and install a new, Conservative government. The protest turned into a riot that damaged property and resulted in the deaths of three people. It took months to settle the political stalemate. The Conservatives won by-elections in disputed ridings and remained in power. The riot led to new laws that protected polling stations, saw police officers keep the peace instead of soldiers, and discouraged events and practices that could lead to violence.

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Notwithstanding Clause

Section 33 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms is known as the notwithstanding clause. Also known as the override clause, it is part of the Constitution of Canada. The clause allows federal, provincial or territorial governments to temporarily override, or bypass, certain Charter rights. These overrides are subject to renewal after five years. Although the clause is available to governments, its use is politically difficult and therefore rare. It is known colloquially as the “nuclear option,” because its use is considered extremely severe. Since the Constitution was patriated in 1982, the clause has been used only a handful of times by various provinces. The federal government has never invoked the clause.

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Dogs in Canada

Dog (Canis familiaris) is a carnivorous mammal, and probably the first domesticated animal. In Canada, dogs were first kept by Indigenous peoples. The Canadian Kennel Club recognizes 187 breeds, five of which are uniquely Canadian: the Tahltan bear dog, the Canadian Inuit dog, the Nova Scotia duck-tolling retriever, the Newfoundland dog and the Labrador retriever. A sixth dog breed indigenous to Canada, the Salish woolly dog, went extinct before the Canadian Kennel Club officially registered it as a breed.

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MS St. Louis

​On 7 June 1939, 907 Jewish refugees aboard the MS St. Louis were denied entry to Canada. The ship returned its passengers to safe harbour in four European countries. Sadly, 254 of its passengers later perished in the Holocaust.

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Numbered Treaties

The Numbered Treaties were a series of 11 treaties made between the Crown and First Nations from 1871 to 1921. The Numbered Treaties cover the area between the Lake of the Woods (northern Ontario, southern Manitoba) to the Rocky Mountains (northeastern British Columbia and interior Plains of Alberta) to the Beaufort Sea (north of Yukon and the Northwest Territories).

The treaties provided the Crown with land for industrial development and white settlement. In exchange for their traditional territory, government negotiators made various promises to First Nations, both orally and in the written texts of the treaties. These include special rights to treaty lands and the distribution of cash payments, hunting and fishing tools, farming supplies, and the like. These terms of agreement are controversial and contested. To this day, the Numbered Treaties have ongoing legal and socio-economic impacts on Indigenous communities. (See also Treaties with Indigenous Peoples in Canada.)

(This is a full-length entry about the Numbered Treaties. For a plain-language summary, please see Numbered Treaties (Plain-Language Summary.)

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IODE (Imperial Order Daughters of the Empire)

The IODE is a national women’s charitable organization in Canada. Founded in 1900, the organization’s original intent was to support and promote patriotism to the British Empire. (See Imperialism.) The IODE contributed to the construction of an Anglo-Canadian identity in the image of Britain. Throughout this time, the IODE improved the lives of some women in Canada, and championed various causes, such as improving health care and producing strong Canadian citizens. However, the organization was, at times, complicit in racism and oppression. Increasingly aware of this problem, the organization changed its name to IODE in 1978-9 and became more Canada-centric. Today, IODE focuses on the welfare of children, education and community service.

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Recession of 2008–09 in Canada

The global financial crisis that began in 2007 dragged much of the world economy into recession, and Canada was not spared. Although the effects on Canada were milder than on the United States and in Europe, the Canadian recession of 2008–09 was still severe enough to generate sharp declines in output and employment and to require significant responses by Canadian policy-makers.

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Rogers Communications

Rogers Communications Inc. is a diversified communications and media company that operates almost entirely in Canada. Founded in 1960 with a single FM radio station in Toronto, it is now the country’s largest provider of wireless services as well as a leading cable company and a major player in broadcasting and sports entertainment. Among its many brands are Citytv and the Toronto Blue Jays.

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Québec Since Confederation

When the Canadian Confederation was established in 1867, provisions were made for the creation of a provincial government in Québec, the only region with a majority French-speaking population. This distinctive identity has exerted a profound influence on all facets of Québec’s history and continues to fuel debate about the province’s future.

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Architectural History: 1914-1967

 On 3 February 1916 fire broke out on Parliament Hill in Ottawa. The following morning all that remained of the Centre Block (1859) was the famous pinnacled library and a few walls of rubble. Canada was at war with Germany, its citizens in uniform, but replacement began almost immediately.

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Social History

Social history is a way of looking at how a society organizes itself and how this changes over time. The elements that make up Canada’s social history include climate and geography, as well as the transition to industrialization and urbanization.

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Jewish Canadians

Unlike most immigrants to Canada, Jews did not come from a place where they were the majority cultural group. Jews were internationally dispersed at the time of the ancient Roman Empire and after unsuccessful revolts against it lost their sovereignty in their ancient homeland. Subsequently, Jews lived, sometimes for many centuries, as minorities in the Middle East, North Africa and Europe. In the 2011 National Household Survey (NHS), 329,495 Canadians identified as Jewish when responding to the census question on religion, and 309,650 identified as being of Jewish ethnic origin (115,640 single and 194,010 multiple responses).

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London Conference

From 4 December 1866 to March 1867, politicians from the Province of Canada, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick met with delegates of the British government in London. This was the last of three conferences — after the Charlottetown Conference and Quebec Conference in 1864 — that were held to determine the constitutional details of Confederation. The Quebec Resolutions — 72 points that had been agreed upon in Quebec City — were reviewed and amended. They formed the basis of the British North America Act. It was passed by the British Parliament and received Queen Victoria’s Royal Assent on 29 March 1867.

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Elites

As used every day, elite is an adjective referring to the upper echelon of any activity - eg, elite athletes or elite soldiers. Used more analytically as a noun, elites are those who hold the uppermost decision-making positions in important activities organized in a definite hierarchy.