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Municipal Finance

Municipal finance is concerned with the revenues and expenditures of municipalities. Revenues are secured from local taxes (see TAXATION) and other local revenues and from provincial and federal grants.

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McCarter Nairne

They began by designing houses and small apartment buildings. A breakthrough was the 1924 commission for the six-storey Devonshire Apartments, which were situated on a prominent downtown site.

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Human Resource Management

Workplace problems are constantly changing, as is the workplace itself, and change is perhaps faster today than ever before. Thus employer-employee relationships, whether individual or collective, are in perpetual evolution.

Macleans

Rogers Buys Vidéotron

This article was originally published in Maclean’s magazine on February 21, 2000. Partner content is not updated.

On Bay Street they call him the king of cable, but Ted Rogers' ambitions have always extended far beyond the television set. For years, the founder and chief executive officer of Rogers Communications Inc.

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United Farm Women of Alberta

The United Farm Women of Alberta (UFWA) was the first provincial organization of farm women in Alberta. Originally an auxiliary of the United Farmers of Alberta (UFA), the UFWA became a separate organization in 1916. The organization became the Farm Women’s Union of Alberta (FWUA) in 1949 and the Women of Unifarm in 1970. The organization dissolved in 2000.

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Maclean's

Owned by Roger's Publishing Ltd and published in Toronto, Ontario, Maclean's is Canada's national weekly current affairs magazine.

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Banking in Canada

Banking is a financial process carried out by an institution that accepts deposits, lends money and transfers funds. Canada's major banks play a vital role in the economy and today also engage in the insurance, trust and securities markets. Their business, the technology surrounding it and the regulations that govern it, have evolved continuously over the centuries.

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Province of Canada (1841-67)

In 1841, Britain united the colonies of Upper and Lower Canada into the Province of Canada. This was in response to the violent rebellions of 1837–38. The Durham Report (1839) recommended the guidelines to create the new colony with the Act of Union. The Province of Canada was made up of Canada West (formerly Upper Canada) and Canada East (formerly Lower Canada). The two regions were governed jointly until the Province was dissolved to make way for Confederation in 1867. Canada West then became Ontario and Canada East became Quebec. The Province of Canada was a 26-year experiment in anglophone-francophone political cooperation. During this time, responsible government came to British North America and expanded trade and commerce brought wealth to the region. Leaders such as Sir John A. Macdonald, Sir George-Étienne Cartier and George Brown emerged and Confederation was born.

(This is the full-length entry about the Province of Canada. For a plain language summary, please see Province of Canada (Plain Language Summary).)

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Macroeconomics

Macroeconomics is a field of economics that studies economic behaviour in the aggregate, or as a whole. It investigates economic issues such as employment, national income, price inflation and international trade. By contrast, microeconomics studies the behaviour of individuals and firms in allocating scarce resources.

Macroeconomics emerged in the 1930s as a separate field largely in response to the Great Depression. Macroeconomists often use aggregate measures to study the structure and behaviour of the entire economy. Some of those measures include gross domestic product (GDP), unemployment rate, interest rates, economic growth rates and price indices (see Consumer Price Index). This branch of economics is closely tied to government policy, especially fiscal policy (government spending with the aim of stimulating the economy) and monetary policy (policies related to the supply of money). Developments in macroeconomic theory often affect the monetary policies of central banks, such as the Bank of Canada and the United States’ Federal Reserve, that in turn have an impact on the cost of living and economic stability around the world.

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Petro-Canada

Petro-Canada, created by the federal government in the mid-1970s as Canada's national oil company, was the offspring of the world energy crisis, Canadian ECONOMIC NATIONALISM, and a tradition of state-supported development of the country's costly energy frontier.

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Royal Bank of Canada (RBC)

Royal Bank of Canada (RBC) was founded in 1864. Today, it is the country’s largest chartered bank and financial institution. It has five divisions: Personal and Commercial Banking, consisting of banking operations in 36 countries around the world; RBC Wealth Management, consisting of investment products and services for retail investors; RBC Capital Markets for international investment banking services; RBC Insurance for individual and group clients; and Investor and Treasury Services, providing custody services and fund administration for international clients. Royal Bank is a public company that trades on the Toronto Stock Exchange, New York Stock Exchange and SIX Swiss Exchange under the symbol RY. In 2021, RBC registered $49.7 billion in revenue and $16.05 billion in profit and held $1.7 trillion in assets. Royal Bank employs more than 87,000 people, who serve 17 million customers.

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Rogers Communications

Rogers Communications Inc. is a diversified communications and media company that operates almost entirely in Canada. Founded in 1960 with a single FM radio station in Toronto, it is now the country’s largest provider of wireless services as well as a leading cable company and a major player in broadcasting and sports entertainment. Among its many brands are Citytv and the Toronto Blue Jays.

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Statistics

Statistics is the science concerned with the collection and analysis of numerical information to answer questions wisely. The term also refers to the numerical information that has been collected. Statistics has many applications in Canada, from government censuses and surveys, to decision making in industry, to medical research and technological innovation.

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Canada West

In 1841, Britain united the colonies of Upper and Lower Canada into the Province of Canada. This was in response to the violent rebellions of 1837–38. The Durham Report (1839) laid out the guidelines to create the new colony with the Act of Union in 1840. The Province of Canada was made up of Canada West (formerly Upper Canada) and Canada East (formerly Lower Canada). The two regions were governed jointly until Confederation in 1867. Canada West then became Ontario and Canada East became Quebec.

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Recession of 2008–09 in Canada

The global financial crisis that began in 2007 dragged much of the world economy into recession, and Canada was not spared. Although the effects on Canada were milder than on the United States and in Europe, the Canadian recession of 2008–09 was still severe enough to generate sharp declines in output and employment and to require significant responses by Canadian policy-makers.