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Article

Forest Ranger

The term "ranger" probably has its origins in the North American wars of the 18th and 19th centuries. At the time, the land was heavily forested and armies developed special combat units of woodsmen and marksmen to carry out reconnaissance as well as surprise and diversionary raids.

Article

Autonomy Bills

The Autonomy Bills were the 1905 laws that created the provinces of Saskatchewan and Alberta out of the North-West Territories (1870–1905). Despite strong support for provincehood, frustrations were evident. The Bills’ most fiercely contested elements revolved around boundaries, the federal government’s ongoing control over public lands and resources and the educational clauses in the Bills.

Article

Dene Games

Dene games are tests of physical and mental skill that were originally used by the Dene (northern Athabascan peoples) to prepare for the hunting and fishing seasons, and to provide entertainment. Today, Dene games (e.g., Finger Pull and Hand Games) are still played in many schools and community centres in the North as a means of preserving tradition and culture. As competitive sports, Dene games are also featured in various national and international athletic competitions, including the Arctic Winter Games.

Article

Habitat 67

Habitat 67 is an experimental urban residential complex designed by Israeli-born architect Moshe Safdie and located in the Cité du Havre neighbourhood south of Montréal’s Old Port sector. Commissioned by the Canadian Corporation for Expo 67, the project derives its name from the theme of the fair, “Man and His World,” and became one of the major pavilions of the exhibition. It is the only remaining structure from Expo 67 to retain its original function. In 2015, the Guardian called Habitat “a functioning icon of 1960s utopianism, and one of that period’s most important buildings.”

Article

Theatre Education

 Theatre education is a term which traditionally has been applied to the training given to theatre professionals, whether that training is provided in a university setting or by a professional school.

Article

Section 23 and Francophone Education outside of Quebec

Section 23 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms ensures the right to instruction in French or English to the children of the francophone and anglophone minority communities in all of Canada’s provinces. Section 23 allows francophones to establish French-language school boards in each of the majority-anglophone provinces. Thanks to this key provision of the Charter, francophones outside of Quebec and anglophones in Quebec can pursue their education in their own language.

Article

Epidemiology

Epidemiology is the branch of medical science devoted to the study of the distribution and determinants of diseases in populations. Descriptive and analytic epidemiology are observational, whereas clinical epidemiology is experimental in nature.

Speech

Wilfrid Laurier: “The Sunny Way” Speech, 1895

The Manitoba Schools Question involved a struggle over the rights of francophones in Manitoba to receive an education in their mother tongue and their religion, constitutional rights that had been revoked by the provincial government of Thomas Greenway in 1890. Wilfrid Laurier’s solution to the problem followed what he called the “sunny way” — the way of negotiation, diplomacy and compromise — rather than forced legislation. He first used the term 8 October 1895, when he was leader of the opposition, in a speech he delivered in Ontario. The sunny way is a reference to one of Aesop’s Fables, in which the wind and the sun compete to see who can motivate a man to remove his jacket. The sun shines down, pleasantly and patiently, and the wind blows with bluster. The sun ultimately wins the day, proving that patience and enticement are more effective than force and coercion. After coming to power in 1896, Laurier settled the Manitoba Schools Question with sunny ways — but the politically expedient settlement his government achieved came at a steep price: the sacrificing of French language minority rights in Manitoba.

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Special Education

​Special education is typically described as an approach designed to serve exceptional students who either have physical disabilities, developmental disorders, behavioral disorders or challenges with learning, or who are gifted.

Article

Bathurst High School Tragedy

Eight people, including seven teenage athletes from Bathurst, New Brunswick, died in January 2008 when their school van collided with a transport truck on a snowy highway. The disaster triggered an inquest and a public campaign by some of the grieving mothers that exposed safety flaws in the way schoolchildren are transported to off-site events.

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University of Saskatchewan

The University of Saskatchewan was founded in 1907. In 1879 the Church of England (see Anglicanism) established Emmanuel College in Prince Albert to train in theology, classics and Indigenous languages. In 1883 it became known as the University of Saskatchewan.

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Educational Opportunity

Prior to the emergence of compulsory public elementary schooling early in the 19th century, educational opportunities in western European societies were generally grounded in the experiences of particular social classes.

Article

Basilians

The Basilian Fathers, or Congregation of St Basil, founded in France in 1822, are now centred in Toronto. They came to Canada in 1850 and in 1852 founded St Michael's College there.

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New Democratic Party (NDP)

Founded in 1961, the New Democratic Party (NDP) is a social democratic political party that has formed the government in several provinces but never nationally. Its current leader is Jagmeet Singh. In 2011, it enjoyed an historic electoral breakthrough, becoming the Official Opposition in Parliament for the first time. Four years later, despite hopes of winning a federal election, the NDP was returned to a third-place position in the House of Commons. It slipped to fourth place in the 2019 federal election, after a resurgence from the Bloc Québécois.

Article

North-West Territories Act

The North-West Territories Act, passed by the Liberal government of Alexander Mackenzie in April 1875, was an attempt to improve government administration and direct the development of the North-West Territories. Established in 1870, the North-West Territories was the first Canadian territory. It covered a vast area, stretching from Labrador to the Rocky Mountains and from the forty-ninth parallel to the Arctic Ocean.