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Anishinaabemowin: Ojibwe Language

Anishinaabemowin (also called Ojibwemowin, the Ojibwe/Ojibwa language, or Chippewa) is an Indigenous language, generally spanning from Manitoba to Québec, with a strong concentration around the Great Lakes. Elders share that the term Anishinaabemowin acknowledges the creation story of the Ojibwe people: “Anishinaabe” means “the spirit that is lowered down from above,” “-mo” refers to expression through speech and “-win” refers to the life energy within, used to do so. Linguists also explain that “-win” is a nominalizer that turns the verb Anishinaabemo (“he/she is speaking the Anishinaabe language”) into a noun. According to the 2016 Census, 28,130 people are listed as speaking Anishinaabemowin.

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Social and Welfare Services

There is a general division in Canada between social security programs and social and welfare services. Social security programs, which are the responsibility of all levels of government, provide direct economic assistance in one form or another to individuals or families. Included in this category are programs such as Family Allowances, Old Age Pensions and provincial and municipal social-assistance programs.

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Landlord and Tenant Law

Landlord and tenant law, governed by provincial statutes and judge-made law, varies considerably from province to province. Essentially, a landlord and tenant relationship is contractual (see CONTRACT LAW).

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Private School

Fee-supported educational institutions at the primary and secondary level not under direct government control have existed in Canada from the earliest years of white settlement to the present day. Until the 1830s, most schooling was private.

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Field Hockey

In Canada, field hockey is generally restricted to spring, summer and early autumn seasons, except in southwestern BC, where it can be played year-round. It is principally a girls' sport in schools, but is played by both men and women in adult leagues across the country.

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School Facilities

The Indigenous peoples who occupied what is now called Canada for millennia had well-developed formal and informal systems for educating community members.

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University of British Columbia

In 1920 honours courses, extension services and summer sessions were introduced, and McGill's Victoria College in Victoria became an affiliate of the university. In 1925 UBC moved to its permanent site on the Vancouver campus. Expansion of the campus was virtually at a standstill during the 1930s.

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Brothers of the Christian Schools

The Institute of the Brothers of the Christian Schools is a Catholic religious order founded by Jean-Baptiste de La Salle in France in 1680. In Canada, members are generally referred to as Christian Brothers or De La Salle Brothers. They are not to be confused with the Congregation of Christian Brothers who were founded by Edmund Rice in Ireland in 1802 and whose members in Canada were also called Christian Brothers or Irish Christian Brothers. The Brothers of the Christian Schools were a major force in Catholic education in Canada, especially in Quebec. They first arrived in Montreal in 1837, then experienced numeric growth, geographic expansion and a solid reputation over the next 125 years. The Brothers underwent a significant exodus and decline in vocations with the dramatic religious and social changes spawned by the Second Vatican Council and the Quiet Revolution.

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Architectural Education

Architectural education in Canada, as it is currently delivered, is a relatively recent phenomenon. Most programs were developed in the 20th century, with significant modifications in the 1990s and early 2000s.

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Significant Events in Canadian History

The significance of an event cannot be measured scientifically. Every historian, journalist or student could make their own lists. This selection is meant to draw attention to a number of events in Canadian history that left an indelible mark on the lives of the people of the time and an indisputable memory in the minds of later generations.

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Collegiate

A collegiate, or collegiate institute, is a type of SECONDARY SCHOOL originally required to meet certain minimum standards on the number and qualifications of its teachers and its student enrolment in the classics.

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SchoolNet

SchoolNet was an educational project launched in 1993 by federal, provincial and territorial governments, educational organizations and industry partners. Their goals were to link Canadian schools and libraries (particularly those in remote areas) via the Internet and to foster the creation of a Canadian educational website in English and French.

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School Systems

A present-day feature of all developed countries is a system of schooling which is governed and supervised, at least to some extent, by the state. These systems were established and expanded to facilitate universal and compulsory education for young people between certain ages.

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Racial Segregation of Black People in Canada

Racial segregation is the separation of people, or groups of people, based on race in everyday life. Throughout Canada’s history, there have been many examples of Black people being segregated, excluded from, or denied equal access to opportunities and services such as education, employment, housing, transportation, immigration, health care and commercial establishments. The racial segregation of Black people in Canada was historically enforced through laws, court decisions and social norms.

See also Anti-Black Racism in Canada.

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Duke Energy Corp

Duke Energy Corp is an integrated energy business involved in the transmission and distribution of NATURAL GAS and the generation and supply of electricity (see HYDROELECTRICITY). The company is headquartered in Charlotte, North Carolina, and has significant operations in Canada.