Elections and Prime Ministers | The Canadian Encyclopedia
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Elections and Prime Ministers

This timeline lists events related to elections and Prime Ministers in Canada.

House of Commons
  1. January 24, 1848

    Sir Louis-Hippolyte LaFontaine

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Reform Victory in Canada

    Election returns resulted in an overwhelming Reform victory in both Canada East and Canada West. Louis LaFontaine became premier, Robert Baldwin co-premier.

  2. March 04, 1865

    Sir Samuel Leonard Tilley

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Tilley Defeated in NB

    The New Brunswick government, led by pro-Confederation Leonard Tilley, was defeated in the only election held on the issue of Confederation.

  3. March 08, 1867

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    British North America Act

    The British North America Act was passed by the British Parliament and given royal assent by Queen Victoria on 29 March. It came into effect on 1 July. The Act joined the colonies of Canada, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick in one federal union. In 1949, Newfoundland becomes Canada’s newest province. In 1999, Nunavut becomes Canada’s newest territory. Its creation establishes self-governance for the region’s Inuit population.

  4. July 01, 1867

    Sir John A. Macdonald, Canada's First Prime Minister

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    John A. Macdonald Becomes First PM

    John A. Macdonald became the first prime minister of Canada.

  5. August 07, 1867

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Conservatives Win First Majority

    In the first general election after Confederation, the Conservatives won a majority with 101 seats to the Liberals' 80; Sir John A. Macdonald, who had been chosen prime minister by the Governor General when Canada was created, remained prime minister.

  6. September 20, 1867

    Macdonald Campaign Poster

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    First Election Post-Confederation

    Sir John A. Macdonald leads the Conservative Party to victory. Men over the age of 21 who meet property qualifications can vote.

  7. January 01, 1872

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Chinese Canadians in BC Disenfranchised

    The British Columbia legislature passed a law banning Chinese residents from voting. In the 1860s, every male inhabitant of the province had been allowed to vote for legislative councillors. Prior to the ban, Chinese residents formed the majority of voters in some districts.

  8. July 20, 1872

    Sir John A. Macdonald

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Conservatives Win Second Majority

    In the federal election, the Conservatives won a majority with 103 seats to the Liberals' 97; Sir John A. Macdonald remained prime minister.

  9. November 07, 1873

    Alexander Mackenzie

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    First Liberal Prime Minister

    Alexander Mackenzie became Canada's first Liberal prime minister.

  10. January 22, 1874

    Alexander Mackenzie

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Liberals Win First Majority

    In the federal election, the Liberals formed their first majority, winning 133 seats. Alexander Mackenzie became the first Liberal prime minister.

  11. May 26, 1874

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Secret Ballot Introduced

    An Act was passed introducing vote by secret ballot, simultaneous elections and the abolition of property qualifications for Members of Parliament.

  12. February 23, 1875

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Secret Ballot in Québec

    A new electoral law was instated in Québec, enforcing the secret ballot for the first time.

  13. January 22, 1878

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Secret Ballot Employed

    The secret ballot and simultaneous voting were employed for the first time in Canada.

  14. September 17, 1878

    Sir John A. Macdonald

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Conservatives Regain Power

    In the federal election, the Conservatives regained power with 137 seats to the Liberals' 69. Sir John A. Macdonald became prime minister again.

  15. October 17, 1878

    Macdonald Campaign Poster

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Macdonald Becomes Prime Minister for the Second Time

    Conservative leader Sir John A. Macdonald defeated Liberal leader Alexander Mackenzie and became prime minister of Canada for the second time.

  16. June 20, 1882

    Sir John A. Macdonald, Canada's First Prime Minister

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Conservatives Retain Power 1882

    In the federal election, the Conservatives retained power, winning 139 seats to the Liberals' 71. Macdonald remained prime minister.

  17. January 01, 1885

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Voters are Male “Persons”

    Under the Electoral Franchise Act, those permitted to vote at the federal level are defined as “male person[s].” The original draft of the bill had attempted to expand the franchise to unmarried women and widows with property (and to First Nations living on reserves), but these groups were dropped from the final legislation.

  18. February 22, 1887

    Sir John A. Macdonald, Canada's First Prime Minister

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Conservatives Retain Power 1887

    In the federal election, the Conservatives retained power with a reduced majority, winning 123 seats to the Liberals' 92. Sir John A. Macdonald remained prime minister.

  19. March 05, 1891

    Sir John A. Macdonald, Canada's First Prime Minister

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Conservatives Retain Power 1891

    In the federal election, the results were identical to those of 1887, with 123 Conservative seats and 92 Liberal. Sir John A. Macdonald won his last election and remained prime minister.

  20. June 06, 1891

    Funeral of Sir John A. Macdonald at Cataraqui Cemetery.

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Death of Sir John A. Macdonald

    Sir John A. Macdonald died in Ottawa at the age of 76. Thousands of grieving Canadians viewed his casket on display in the Senate.

  21. June 16, 1891

    Sir John Joseph Caldwell Abbott

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Abbott Chosen Leader

    John Joseph Caldwell Abbott was chosen to succeed Macdonald as leader of the Conservatives and became prime minister.

  22. November 25, 1892

    Sir John Sparrow David Thompson

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Thompson Becomes PM

    John Sparrow David Thompson succeeded J.J.C. Abbott as prime minister.

  23. December 21, 1894

    Sir Mackenzie Bowell

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Bowell Becomes PM

    Following the death of J.S.D. Thompson on December 12, Mackenzie Bowell became prime minister.

  24. January 01, 1895

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Japanese Canadians in BC Disenfranchised

    The government of British Columbia amended the Provincial Voters’ Act, disenfranchising Japanese Canadians in the province.

  25. May 01, 1896

    Sir Charles Tupper

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Tupper Becomes PM

    Sir Charles Tupper became prime minister, succeeding Mackenzie Bowell.

  26. June 23, 1896

    Sir Wilfrid Laurier Campaigning

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Liberal Victory, Laurier PM

    In the federal election, the Liberals defeated the Conservatives with 118 seats to 88. Wilfrid Laurier became Canada's first French-Canadian prime minister and marked a turning point in Canadian politics after years of Conservative Party rule.

  27. November 07, 1900

    Sir Wilfrid Laurier Campaigning

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Liberals Hold Power 1900

    In the federal election, the Liberals were sustained in power, with 132 seats to the Conservatives' 81. Laurier remained prime minister.

  28. March 09, 1901

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Japanese Right to Vote

    Naturalized Japanese won the right to vote in their successful appeal of the BC Elections Act.

  29. November 03, 1904

    Sir Wilfrid Laurier Campaigning

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Liberals Retain Power 1904

    In a federal election, the Liberals maintained power, with 139 seats to the Conservatives' 75. Laurier remained prime minister.

  30. January 01, 1908

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Chinese Canadians in Saskatchewan Disenfranchised

    The province of Saskatchewan passed a law disenfranchising Chinese Canadians.

  31. October 26, 1908

    Sir Wilfrid Laurier Campaigning

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Liberals Retain Power 1908

    In a federal election, the Liberals remained in power with 133 seats to the Conservatives' 75. Laurier remained prime minister.

  32. October 11, 1911

    Sir Robert Borden

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Borden Becomes Prime Minister

    Robert Borden became prime minister, ending Laurier's 15-year rule.

  33. January 28, 1916

    McClung, Murphy and Jamieson

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Manitoba Women Get Vote

    Manitoba was the first province in Canada to grant women the right to vote and to hold political office provincially.

  34. March 14, 1916

    McClung, Murphy and Jamieson

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Saskatchewan Women Get Vote

    Saskatchewan women won the rights to vote and to hold provincial office.

  35. Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Alberta Women Get Vote

    Alberta women won the rights to vote and to hold provincial office.

  36. Elections and Prime Ministers 

    BC Women Get Vote

    British Columbia women (except Asian and Indigenous women) won the rights to vote and to hold provincial office.

  37. Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Women Get Vote in Ontario

    Women were granted the right to vote and hold public office in Ontario.

  38. June 07, 1917

    Louise McKinney, women's rights activist, legislator

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    First Elected Women

    Louise McKinney and Roberta MacAdams were the first women in Canada elected to a provincial legislature, in Alberta.

  39. September 20, 1917

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Wartime Elections Act and Military Voters Act

    Parliament passes the Wartime Elections ActThe right to vote federally now extends to women in the armed forces and female relatives of military men. However, Citizens considered of “enemy alien” birth and some pacifist communities are disenfranchised. 

  40. December 17, 1917

    Sir Robert Borden

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Unionists Win Election

    In a general election, a Unionist coalition of Conservatives and Liberals won 153 seats to the Liberals' 82. Borden remained prime minister.

  41. January 24, 1918

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    First Woman Elected to BC legislature

    Mary Ellen Smith was the first woman elected to the BC legislature; it was the first election in which women could vote in BC.

  42. April 26, 1918

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Nova Scotia Women Get Vote

    Nova Scotia women won the rights to vote and to hold provincial office.

  43. April 17, 1919

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    New Brunswick Women Get Vote

    New Brunswick women won the right to vote but not to hold provincial office.

  44. May 20, 1919

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Yukon Women Get Vote

    Yukon women won the right to vote and seek elected office.

  45. July 01, 1919

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Women Gain Right to Hold Office

    Women became eligible to stand for office in the House of Commons.

  46. July 29, 1919

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Saskatchewan Elects First Female MLA

    Sarah Ramsland, Saskatchewan’s first female Member of the Legislative Assembly, won her seat in a by-election. After her husband, MLA Max Ramsland, died in the 1918 influenza epidemic, Sarah was invited to run in the same district and won. In the first 66 years in which Saskatchewan women could hold provincial office, only 10 were elected.

  47. October 20, 1919

    Drury, Ernest Charles

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    United Farmers of Ontario

    In an Ontario general election, the Conservative government was defeated by the United Farmers of Ontario, led by E.C. Drury, who became premier.

  48. June 29, 1920

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    First Woman Elected to Manitoba Legislature

    Edith MacTavish Rogers became the first woman elected to the Legislative Assembly of Manitoba.

  49. July 01, 1920

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Dominion Elections Act

    The Dominion Elections Act enfranchised many of those who had been disenfranchised during the First World War, such as those originating from countries with which Canada had been at war. However, the Act stated that anyone who was disenfranchised by provincial legislation because of race would remain disenfranchised from the federal vote. This included persons of Chinese origin in Saskatchewan, and those of Indigenous, Chinese, Japanese, and South Asian origins in British Columbia.

  50. July 10, 1920

    Meighen, Arthur

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Arthur Meighen Becomes PM

    Robert Borden resigned and was succeeded as Conservative prime minister by Arthur Meighen.

  51. July 18, 1921

    United Farmers of Alberta

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    United Farmers of Alberta Win

    The United Farmers of Alberta won the provincial election, forming the government until 1935. They chose Herbert Greenfield as premier.

  52. July 18, 1921

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Parlby Elected

    Irene Parlby was elected to the Alberta Legislature, representing Lacombe in the United Farmers of Alberta government. She was subsequently named to Cabinet, as minister without portfolio. Parlby was only the second woman in the British Empire to hold ministerial office. She was particularly active on issues related to public health care, improved wages for working women and married women's property rights.

  53. December 06, 1921

    William Lyon Mackenzie King and Pat

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Liberals Win Minority

    In a federal election, the Liberals won a minority government with 116 seats. The Conservatives took 50, the Progressives 65 (there were 4 other members). Mackenzie King became prime minister.

  54. December 29, 1921

    William Lyon Mackenzie King and Pat

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    King Becomes Prime Minister

    W.L. Mackenzie King became prime minister of Canada for the first time.

  55. May 03, 1922

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    PEI Women Get Vote

    Prince Edward Island women won the rights to vote and to hold provincial office.

  56. January 01, 1924

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    First Nations Veterans Granted Right to Vote

    The federal franchise was extended to Status Indian veterans of the First World War, including those living on reserves.

  57. April 03, 1925

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Newfoundland and Labrador Women Get Vote

    Women over 25 years of age gained the right to vote and to stand for political office in Newfoundland and Labrador.

  58. October 29, 1925

    William Lyon Mackenzie King, politician and prime minister

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    King Hangs on to Minority

    In a federal election the Conservatives won a plurality of seats with 116, but King managed to hold onto power. The Liberals took 99 and the Progressives 24, and there were 6 other members.

  59. June 25, 1926

    William Lyon Mackenzie King and Pat

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    King-Byng Affair

    Mackenzie King's Liberals were defeated on a motion of censure. Governor General Byng refused to grant King's request to dissolve Parliament. Byng asked Arthur Meighen to form a government, which he did, on June 29.

  60. July 02, 1926

    Meighen, Arthur

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Meighen Nonconfidence

    The Meighen government was defeated in a nonconfidence motion.

  61. September 14, 1926

    William Lyon Mackenzie King

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    King Forms Minority

    In a federal election the Liberals and Conservatives reversed fortunes with the Liberals winning 116 seats and the Conservatives 91. The Progressives won 13 seats and the UFA 11; there were 14 others. King became prime minister again, forming a minority.

  62. September 25, 1926

    William Lyon Mackenzie King and Pat

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    King Prime Minister Again

    Mackenzie King became prime minister again.

  63. October 10, 1927

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    R.B. Bennett Becomes Leader

    Richard Bedford Bennett succeeded Arthur Meighen as Conservative Party leader at a convention held in Winnipeg.

  64. July 18, 1928

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Conservatives Win BC Election

    After 12 years of Liberal rule in BC, the Conservatives under Simon Tolmie took 35 of the province's 48 seats. Tolmie remained premier until November 1933.

  65. May 17, 1930

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    First Woman Elected to the NL House of Assembly

    Helena Squires became the first woman elected to the Newfoundland and Labrador House of Assembly.

  66. July 28, 1930

    Richard Bedford Bennett, politician

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Conservatives Win Election

    In a federal election, the Conservatives won a majority with 137 seats to the Liberals' 91. The UFA held 10 and the Progressives dropped to 2. R.B. Bennett became prime minister.

  67. August 07, 1930

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    R.B. Bennett Becomes PM

    R.B. Bennett was sworn in as prime minister.

  68. January 01, 1931

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Japanese Canadian Veterans Given Right to Vote

    The federal government granted the franchise to Japanese Canadian veterans of the First World War. They were the first Japanese Canadians given the right to vote.

  69. March 09, 1934

    McClung, Murphy and Jamieson

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    NB Women Gain Right to Hold Office

    New Brunswick women won the right to hold provincial office.

  70. June 19, 1934

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Liberals Win in Saskatchewan

    The Liberals under James Garfield Gardiner won the Saskatchewan elections.

  71. August 22, 1935

    Aberhart, William

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Social Credit Victory in Alberta

    Charismatic Bible-thumping William Aberhart led the Social Credit Party to victory in the Alberta provincial elections. He was sworn in on September 3. The party dominated Alberta politics until 1971.

  72. October 14, 1935

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Liberals Win Election

    In the federal election, the Liberals won a landslide majority, with 171 seats to the Conservatives' 39. The CCF won 7 seats and the Social Credit 17. King became prime minister for the third time.

  73. October 23, 1935

    William Lyon Mackenzie King and Pat

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    King Sworn in as Prime Minister

    Mackenzie King was sworn in as prime minister of Canada again.

  74. October 25, 1939

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Liberals Win Québec Election

    The Liberals won the Québec provincial elections. Joseph-Adélard Godbout was sworn in as premier on 8 Nov.

  75. March 26, 1940

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Liberals Win Federal Election

    In the federal election, the Liberals retained power with 178 seats. The Conservatives stayed at 39, the CCF won 8 and the Social Credit 10. King remained prime minister.

  76. April 25, 1940

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Québec Women Get Vote

    Québec women were the last in Canada to earn the rights to vote and run for office in provincial elections.

  77. August 04, 1943

    George Drew, politician

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Conservatives Win Ontario

    George Drew's Progressive Conservative Party won the Ontario election, beginning a political dynasty that would last 42 years.

  78. August 04, 1943

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    First Women Elected to Ontario Legislature

    Agnes Macphail and Rae Luckock became the first women elected to the Ontario legislature.

  79. January 01, 1944

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Status Indian Servicemen and their Spouses Enfranchised

    During the Second World War, the federal government extended the right to vote to Status Indians who served in the war and their spouses.

  80. January 01, 1944

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Chinese Canadians in Saskatchewan Given Right to Vote

    The government of Saskatchewan restored Chinese Canadian residents’ right to vote, a right that had been denied in 1908.

  81. June 11, 1945

    William Lyon Mackenzie King

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Liberals Win Reduced Majority

    In the federal election, the Liberals won with a reduced majority of 125 seats to the Conservatives' 67. The CCF rose to 28 seats. King remained prime minister.

  82. January 01, 1947

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Chinese and South Asian Canadians Gain Right to Vote Federally and Provincially

    The Citizenship Act extended the right to vote federally and provincially to Chinese Canadian and South Asian Canadian men and women. However, it ignored Indigenous peoples and Japanese Canadians.

  83. January 01, 1947

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Chinese and South Asian Canadians in BC Enfranchised

    The British Columbia legislature removed the words Chinese and Hindus from the list of those ineligible to vote.

  84. January 01, 1948

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Changes to Elections Act Regarding Race

    The federal Elections Act was changed so that race was no longer grounds for exclusion from voting in federal elections. While Japanese Canadians were enfranchised, First Nations peoples would not gain that right until 1960.

  85. January 08, 1948

    William Lyon Mackenzie King and Pat

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    King Sets Record for Longevity

    With 7825 days in office, Mackenzie King set a record for being prime minister longer than any other government leader in the British Commonwealth.

  86. November 15, 1948

    William Lyon Mackenzie King and Pat

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    King Resigns

    W.L. Mackenzie King resigned as prime minister. He was succeeded by Louis St. Laurent the same day.

  87. November 15, 1948

    Louis St-Laurent

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    St-Laurent Becomes Prime Minister

    Louis St-Laurent succeeded Mackenzie King as Liberal leader and became Canada's 12th prime minister.

  88. January 01, 1949

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    First Nations Gain Right to Vote in British Columbia

    Status Indians in British Columbia were granted the right to vote in provincial elections.

  89. April 01, 1949

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Japanese Canadians Enfranchised

    Japanese Canadians were given the right to vote, and the legal restrictions used to control the movement of Japanese Canadians were removed. With their freedom reestablished, some moved back to British Columbia. But due to the hardships suffered, most Japanese Canadians who were expelled from the coast or deported did not return. With the extension of the federal franchise to Japanese Canadians, the last statutory disenfranchisement of Asians was removed.

  90. June 27, 1949

    Louis St-Laurent

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Liberals Win Landslide

    In the federal election, the Liberals won a landslide with 190 seats (the highest by any party to that time) to only 41 seats for the Progressive Conservatives under George Drew. The CCF won 13 and the Social Credit 10. Louis St-Laurent remained PM.

  91. January 01, 1950

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Inuit Enfranchised

    The Inuit were enfranchised without restrictions. However, the geographic isolation of northern communities meant that many did not have the opportunity to vote until ballot boxes were placed in all Inuit communities for the 1962 federal election.

  92. June 12, 1951

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Northwest Territories Women Get Vote

    Women in the Northwest Territories won the right to vote and stand for office.

  93. January 01, 1952

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    First Nations Gain Right to Vote in Manitoba

    Status Indians in Manitoba were granted the right to vote in provincial elections.

  94. August 10, 1953

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Liberals Retain Power

    In the federal election, the Liberals won 171 seats, the Progressive Conservatives 51, the CCF 23 and the Social Credit 15. St. Laurent remained prime minister.

  95. January 01, 1954

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    First Nations Gain Right to Vote in Ontario

    Status Indians in Ontario were granted the right to vote in provincial elections.

  96. October 30, 1956

    Robert Stanfield

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Conservatives Win Nova Scotia

    The Conservatives under Robert Lorne Stanfield won the Nova Scotia election.

  97. June 10, 1957

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Conservatives Win Minority

    In a federal election, the Progressive Conservatives won a minority government, with 112 seats. The Liberals retained 105, the CCF 25 and the Social Credit 19. John G. Diefenbaker became the first prime minister from western Canada on June 21.

  98. June 21, 1957

    John Diefenbaker

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Diefenbaker Sworn In

    John Diefenbaker was sworn in as prime minister.

  99. March 31, 1958

    John Diefenbaker

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Conservatives Win Majority

    In a federal election, the Progressive Conservatives won a resounding majority, with 208 seats (the highest to that time). The Liberals dropped to only 49 seats and the CCF to 8. Diefenbaker remained prime minister.

  100. January 01, 1960

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    First Nations Gain Right to Vote in Saskatchewan

    Status Indians in Saskatchewan were granted the right to vote in provincial elections.

  101. June 07, 1960

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    First Woman Elected to the Nova Scotia Legislature

    Gladys Porter became the first woman elected to the Nova Scotia legislature.

  102. June 22, 1960

    Jean Lesage

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Liberals Win Québec

    The Liberals under Jean Lesage won the Québec provincial election, finally breaking the hold of the Union Nationale, and signalling a time for change and reform that has become known as the Quiet Revolution. Lesage was sworn in as premier on 5 Jul.

  103. July 01, 1960

    In Hiawatha Council Hall on Occasion of a Federal By-election

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Right to Vote for Status Indians

    Status Indians receive the right to vote in federal elections, no longer losing their status or treaty rights in the process. (See also Indigenous Suffrage in Canada.)

  104. December 14, 1961

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    First Woman Elected to the National Assembly of Québec

    Marie-Claire Kirkland-Casgrain became the first woman elected to the National Assembly of Québec.

  105. June 18, 1962

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Conservatives Win Minority

    In a federal election, the Conservatives were reduced to a minority government, dropping to 116 seats. The Liberals won 99, Social Credit 30 and the NDP 19 seats. Diefenbaker remained prime minister with the support of the Social Credit.

  106. January 01, 1963

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    First Nations Gain Right to Vote in New Brunswick

    Status Indians in New Brunswick were granted the right to vote in provincial elections.

  107. January 01, 1963

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    First Nations Gain Right to Vote in Prince Edward Island

    Status Indians in Prince Edward Island were granted the right to vote in provincial elections.

  108. April 08, 1963

    John Diefenbaker

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Liberals Win a Minority

    In a federal election, the Liberals regained power, but after a vigorous campaign by Diefenbaker their 129 seats were only good for a minority government. The Conservatives held 95 seats, Social Credit 24 seats and the NDP 17. Lester Pearson became PM.

  109. April 22, 1963

    Pearson, Lester Bowles

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Pearson Sworn In

    Lester Pearson was sworn in as prime minister.

  110. April 22, 1964

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Liberals Win in Saskatchewan

    The Liberals under W. Ross Thatcher won the Saskatchewan provincial election, displacing the CCF-NDP after 20 years.

  111. January 01, 1965

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    First Nations Gain Right to Vote in Alberta

    Status Indians in Alberta were granted the right to vote in provincial elections.

  112. November 08, 1965

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Liberals Keep Minority

    In a general election, the Liberals gained only 2 seats to total 131 seats and maintain a minority government. The Conservatives won 97, the NDP 21, Social Credit 5, Ralliement des créditistes 9, and independents 2. Pearson remained prime minister.

  113. September 11, 1967

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    First Woman Elected to the Yukon Territorial Council

    Jean Gordon became the first woman elected to the Yukon Territorial Council.

  114. October 23, 1967

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    First Woman Elected to the New Brunswick Legislature

    Brenda Robertson became the first woman elected to the New Brunswick legislature.

  115. April 20, 1968

    Pierre Trudeau

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Trudeau Sworn In

    Pierre Trudeau was sworn in as Canada's 15th prime minister.

  116. June 25, 1968

    Pierre Trudeau

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Trudeaumania Wins Majority

    In a federal election in which Liberal leader Pierre Trudeau's popularity reached "Trudeamania," the Liberals won 155 seats and a majority. The Progressive Conservatives won 72 seats, the NDP 22, and the Créditistes 14, with one independent.

  117. June 25, 1968

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Leonard Marchand Elected to Federal Office

    Leonard Marchand, member of the Okanagan Nation, became the first Indigenous person to be elected to the federal Parliament since Louis Riel.

  118. January 01, 1969

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    First Nations Gain Right to Vote in Québec

    Status Indians in Québec were granted the right to vote in provincial elections.

  119. April 29, 1970

    Robert Bourassa

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Liberals Win Québec

    The Liberal Party led by Robert Bourassa won the Québec provincial election.

  120. May 11, 1970

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    First Woman Elected to the PEI Legislature

    Jean Canfield became the first woman elected to the Prince Edward Island legislature.

  121. December 21, 1970

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    First Woman Elected to the Northwest Territories Council

    Lena Pedersen became the first woman elected to the Northwest Territories Council.

  122. August 30, 1971

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Conservatives Win Alberta

    Peter Lougheed's Conservatives ended 36 years of Socred government in Alberta by winning a majority government in a general election.

  123. August 30, 1972

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Rosemary Brown Elected the First Black Female MLA

    Politician Rosemary Brown became Canada's first Black woman member of a provincial legislature when she won a seat in BC's general election as a member of the NDP.

  124. October 30, 1972

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Liberals Win Minority

    In a federal election, the Liberals lost their majority, winning only 109 seats to the Tories' 107, but Trudeau remained prime minister at the head of a minority government with the support of the NDP (31 seats). The Social Credit won 15 seats.

  125. October 29, 1973

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Québec Liberals Win

    Robert Bourassa's Parti libéral was re-elected with 30% of the vote.

  126. July 08, 1974

    Pierre Trudeau

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Liberals Regain Majority

    In a federal election, the Liberals won back their majority with 141 seats to the Conservatives' 95. The NDP dropped to 16 and the Social Credit to 11. Trudeau remained prime minister.

  127. August 01, 1974

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Election Expenses Act Passed

    The Election Expenses Act came into force. The law provided for income-tax deductions, for disclosure of the source and amount of donations over $100, and limited the amount of money that could be spent in an election campaign.

  128. September 11, 1975

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    John Turner Resigns

    Future Liberal prime minister John Turner resigned as federal finance minister to return to private life.

  129. January 01, 1976

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Nunatsiaq Riding Created

    A federal riding was created in the Northwest Territories. Called Nunatsiaq, it represented territory that now comprises Nunavut.

  130. May 22, 1979

    Clark, Joseph

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Conservatives Form Minority

    In a federal election the Conservatives fell short of a majority, winning 136 seats to the Liberals' 114. The NDP won 26 seats and the Social Credit 6. The Conservatives formed a minority government with Joe Clark as PM.

  131. June 04, 1979

    Clark, Joseph

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Joe Clark Sworn In

    Joe Clark was sworn in as the youngest prime minister ever.

  132. February 18, 1980

    Pierre Trudeau

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Liberals Return to Power

    In a federal election, the Liberals returned to power, winning 147 seats to the Conservatives' 103. The NDP won 32. Trudeau became prime minister again.

  133. March 03, 1980

    Pierre Trudeau

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Trudeau Sworn In Again

    Pierre Elliott Trudeau was sworn in again as prime minister.

  134. April 26, 1982

    Devine, Grant

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Conservatives Win Saskatchewan

    Grant Devine's PC's won the general election in Saskatchewan.

  135. June 30, 1984

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Turner Sworn In

    Liberal leader John Turner was sworn in as Canada's 17th prime minister.

  136. September 04, 1984

    Brian Mulroney

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Conservatives Win Huge Majority

    In a federal election, the Conservatives won 211 seats, eclipsing Diefenbaker's record 208. The Liberals under John Turner retained only 40, the NDP 30. Brian Mulroney became prime minister.

  137. September 17, 1984

    Brian Mulroney

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Brian Mulroney Sworn In

    Brian Mulroney was sworn in as prime minister.

  138. December 02, 1985

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Liberals Win Québec

    Robert Bourassa led the Liberals to a sweeping victory over the Parti Québécois but failed to win his own seat until January 20, 1986.

  139. May 08, 1986

    Getty, Donald R.

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Getty's Majority Reduced

    In a worsening economic climate, Premier Don Getty of Alberta saw the Conservative majority reduced from 75 of 79 seats to 61.

  140. October 22, 1986

    Copper Tools

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Social Credit Takes BC

    William Vander Zalm led the Social Credit Party to an overwhelming victory in the BC election.

  141. November 21, 1988

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Conservatives Regain Power

    The Free Trade Agreement became the central issue in the 1988 federal election, and the Conservatives overcame a resurgent Liberal Party around whom opposition to the FTA coalesced.

  142. November 21, 1988

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    First Indigenous Woman Elected to Federal Government

    Ethel Dorothy Blondin-Andrew, member of the Dene Nation, became the first Indigenous woman elected to the House of Commons.

  143. December 02, 1989

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    McLaughlin Elected as First Female Party Leader in Canada

    Yukon MP Audrey McLaughlin was chosen leader of the NDP at a national convention in Winnipeg, succeeding Ed Broadbent. She was the first woman to lead a national Canadian political party. She spent six years as leader before stepping down in 1995 after the NDP fell to nine seats in the 1993 general election and lost its official party status.

  144. September 06, 1990

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    NDP Captures Ontario

    The New Democrats took 74 of 130 seats in Ontario's provincial election, making leader Bob Rae the first NDP premier in Ontario's history.

  145. April 02, 1991

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Rita Johnston Becomes Canada's First Female Premier

    Social Credit leader Rita Johnston was sworn in as BC's 29th premier, subsequently becoming both Canada and BC's first female premier.

  146. November 14, 1991

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Cournoyea Elected Premier of NWT

    Nellie J. Cournoyea, of Inupiaq heritage, was elected premier of the Northwest Territories, making her the first Indigenous woman to hold the position of government leader.

  147. June 25, 1993

    Kim Campbell

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Kim Campbell Becomes First Female PM

    After Prime Minister Brian Mulroney resigned from politics, Kim Campbell was selected as the leader of the Progressive Conservative Party and became Canada’s first female prime minister.

  148. October 25, 1993

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Liberals Win Federal Election

    In a federal election, the Liberals won 178 seats and a majority. The Conservatives' 154 seats were reduced to 2, while the NDP retained only 9. Reform won 52 seats and the Bloc Québécois became the official opposition with 54.

  149. November 04, 1993

    Jean Chrétien, politcian

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Chrétien Sworn In

    Liberal leader Jean Chrétien was sworn in as Canada's 20th prime minister.

  150. February 13, 1995

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Liberals Win By-elections

    The Liberals won 2 federal by-elections in Québec.

  151. March 25, 1996

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Liberals Win By-elections

    The federal Liberal Party won 5 by-elections and the Bloc Québécois 1, restoring the Liberals to 177 seats and confirming the BQ as the official opposition.

  152. May 28, 1996

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Chong and Kwan Elected

    Liberal Ida Chong and the NDP’s Jenny Kwan were elected and became British Columbia’s first Chinese Canadian Members of the Legislative Assembly.

  153. November 18, 1996

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Conservatives Win PEI

    The Conservative Party was elected in PEI. Patrick Binns, a former bean farmer, became premier.

  154. June 02, 1997

    Chrétien, Jean 1997

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    1997 Federal Election Results

    The Liberal Party retained its majority with 155 seats and the Reform Party with 60 seats became the Official Opposition. The Bloc Québécois fell to 44 seats from 54 while the NDP won 21 seats (up from 9) and the Conservatives 20 (up from 2).

  155. June 02, 1997

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    First Inuit MP Elected

    Liberal Nancy Karetak-Lindell was elected the first Member of Parliament for the newly-created riding of Nunavut, and became the first Inuit woman elected to the House of Commons.

  156. June 02, 1997

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Sophia Leung Elected

    Liberal candidate Sophia Leung was elected to the House of Commons to represent the riding of Vancouver Kingsway, making her the first Chinese Canadian woman to win federal office.

  157. March 24, 1998

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Yvonne Atwell Elected to NS Legislative Assembly

    Yvonne Atwell, community development advocate and president of the African Canadian Caucus of Nova Scotia, became the first Black Nova Scotian woman elected to the Nova Scotia Legislative Assembly.

  158. June 07, 1999

    Bernard Lord

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Conservatives Win in NB

    The New Brunswick Progressive Conservative Party won a surprising landslide victory in the provincial election. Thirty-three-year-old Bernard Lord became premier.

  159. April 17, 2000

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    First Female Premier of the Yukon

    Patricia (Pat) Duncan became the Yukon’s first female premier at the head of the territory’s first Liberal government.

  160. November 27, 2000

    Jean Chrétien, politcian

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Liberals Win Third Straight

    The Liberal Party won its third straight federal election, increasing the number of seats from 161 to 172. Reform elected 66, The Bloc 38, NDP 13 and Conservatives 12. Chrétien was the first PM since King to win 3 straight elections.

  161. October 31, 2002

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    All Prisoners Granted Right to Vote

    In Sauvé v Canada, the Supreme Court of Canada holds that, under the Charter of Rights and Freedoms, all prisoners have the right to vote.

  162. November 14, 2003

    Paul Martin

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Martin Becomes Liberal Leader

    Paul Martin Jr. succeeded Jean Chrétien as Liberal leader, winning the leadership by a large majority (95%).

  163. December 12, 2003

    Paul Martin

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Martin Sworn In

    Liberal Party leader Paul Martin was sworn in as Canada's 21st prime minister, leading a minority government.

  164. January 23, 2006

    Stephen Harper

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Conservatives Win Federal Election

    The Conservative Party of Canada, led by Stephen Harper, defeated the Liberal Party in a federal election, by a margin of 21 seats, ending 13 years of Liberal rule.

  165. February 06, 2006

    Swearing-In Ceremony

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Harper Sworn In

    Conservative leader Stephen Harper became Canada''s 22nd Prime Minister.

  166. December 02, 2006

    Dion, Stéphane

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Dion Becomes Liberal Leader

    The Liberal Party of Canada announced Stéphane Dion as the party's new leader, replacing outgoing Paul Martin and defeating front runner Michael Ignatieff.

  167. March 26, 2007

    Jean Charest

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Quebec Liberals Win Election

    Jean Charest''s Liberal Party won the provincial election and formed the first minority government in Québec in 130 years. The ADQ unseated the Parti Québécois as the official opposition, and for the first time in 30 years the PQ formed neither the government nor the opposition.

  168. September 17, 2007

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Ève-Mary Thaï Thi Lac Elected

    Ève-Mary Thaï Thi Lac became the first Canadian of Vietnamese origin elected to the House of Commons, representing Saint-Hyacinthe–Bagot, Québec, for the Bloc Québécois.

  169. October 14, 2008

    Stephen Harper

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Conservatives Win Second Minority

    The Conservative government, led by Prime Minister Stephen Harper, won a second minority government.

  170. November 14, 2008

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Aariak Becomes First Female Premier of Nunavut

    Eva Aariak, the MLA for Iqaluit East and Nunavut's former languages commissioner, defeated Paul Okalik to become Nunavut’s second premier and the territory’s first female premier. She was, however, the only woman in the legislature.

  171. December 08, 2008

    Jean Charest

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Québec Liberals Win Majority

    Jean Charest''s Liberal party won a majority in Québec, making him the first Québec premier since Maurice Duplessis to win three successive mandates in the province.

  172. May 02, 2009

    Michael Ignatieff, professor and former Liberal politician

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Ignatieff Becomes Leader

    Interim leader Michael Ignatieff became the official leader of the Liberal Party during the party's leadership convention in Vancouver, BC. He had been appointed acting leader on 10 Dec 2008, replacing Stéphane Dion.

  173. May 12, 2009

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Liberals Win in BC

    Premier Gordon Campbell led the Liberal Party to a third consecutive majority, the first premier in 25 years to do so.

  174. December 03, 2010

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    First Female Premier of NL

    Following the retirement of Premier Danny Williams, Kathy Dunderdale was appointed interim leader of the Progressive Conservative Party and became Newfoundland and Labrador’s first female premier.

  175. September 04, 2012

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    First Female Premier of Québec

    Pauline Marois led the Parti Québécois to a minority government, becoming Québec’s first female premier.

  176. February 11, 2013

    Kathleen Wynne

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    First Female and LGBTQ Premier of Ontario

    Kathleen Wynne was sworn in as Ontario’s twenty-ninth premier, making her the province’s first female and the first LGBTQ premier.

  177. April 14, 2013

    Justin Trudeau

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Trudeau Wins Liberal Leadership

    Justin Trudeau won 80 per cent of the vote to become the leader of the federal Liberal Party, a position his father, Pierre, held for 16 years.

  178. October 19, 2015

    Notice of Federal Election

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Liberal Majority Ends Nine-Year Tory Rule

    At the end of an 11-week campaign — one of the longest in Canadian history — voters elected a majority Liberal government under Justin Trudeau, denying Stephen Harper's Conservatives a fourth federal mandate. The 2015 election marked the end of Harper's nine-year term as prime minister, and following the results he resigned as leader of the Conservative Party.

  179. October 19, 2015

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Record Number of Women Elected Federally

    Eighty-eight women were elected in the 2015 federal election, the highest number to date. Women made up 33 per cent of the candidates in the five leading parties, and won 26 per cent of the seats in the House.

  180. November 04, 2015

    Justin Trudeau

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Justin Trudeau Sworn In as Prime Minister

    Justin Trudeau was sworn in as the 23rd prime minister of Canada at a ceremony in Ottawa, followed by the swearing-in of the country's first gender-balanced Cabinet of 15 men and 15 women. Trudeau's Liberal Party was elected to a majority government in the October 2015 federal election, ending nine years of Conservative government under Prime Minister Stephen Harper.

  181. November 04, 2015

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    First Gender-Balanced Federal Cabinet

    Newly elected prime minister Justin Trudeau appointed 15 women to his 30-member Cabinet the first time in Canadian history that a federal Cabinet included an equal number of men and women.

  182. November 30, 2015

    Liberal Party, logo

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Liberal Victory in Newfoundland and Labrador

    Liberal candidate Dwight Ball was elected premier of Newfoundland and Labrador in the province's 20th general provincial election. The Liberals won by a landslide, taking 31 of the province's 40 seats. The Conservatives, who had governed for the preceding 12 years, won seven seats and the NDP took two.

  183. January 11, 2019

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Supreme Court Guarantees Expat Voting Rights

    In a 5–2 decision, the Supreme Court ruled that expat Canadians can vote in federal elections regardless of how long they’ve lived outside the country. The ruling, which came a month after the Liberal government passed similar legislation, reversed a 1993 law and will likely prevent any future legislation from infringing on expat voting rights.

  184. January 14, 2019

    Justin Trudeau

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Trudeau Shuffles Cabinet

    In anticipation of the federal election in the fall, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau shuffled his Cabinet, moving Jody Wilson-Raybould from justice to veterans affairs, and naming Jane Philpott President of the Treasury Board and Minister of Digital Government. Trudeau called Philpott a “natural choice” for her new role and attempted to dispel the notion that Wilson-Raybould’s move was a demotion, saying, “She is extraordinarily capable of delivering on this file that is one of the core delivery mandates that the federal government has.”

  185. January 30, 2019

    John Horgan

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    BC’s Minority NDP Government Wins Crucial Byelection

    The provincial NDP maintained its fragile hold on power in BC when Sheila Malcolmson won a critical byelection in Nanaimo, beating BC Liberal candidate Tony Harris by ten points. The victory allowed the NDP-Green Party coalition to maintain control of 44 seats in the legislature, compared to 42 for the opposition BC Liberals.

  186. February 25, 2019

    Jagmeet Singh

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Jagmeet Singh Wins Burnaby South Byelection

    NDP leader Jagmeet Singh secured a seat in the House of Commons by winning a byelection in Burnaby South with 39 per cent of the vote, besting Liberal candidate Richard T. Lee’s (26 per cent) and Conservative candidate Jay Shin (22 per cent). Singh had accused Prime Minister Justin Trudeau of delaying the hotly contested election, which Singh needed to win in order to lead his party from within Parliament.

  187. August 17, 2021

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Progressive Conservatives Score Upset Victory in Nova Scotia Election

    Tim Houston led the Progressive Conservatives to an upset victory over the governing Liberals. The PCs took 38.44 per cent of the popular vote and increased their seat total in the 55-seat legislature from 17 to 31. The party took advantage of early campaign stumbles by the Liberals while tacking hard to the left, promising $553 million in health care spending. It was the sixth provincial or territorial election in Canada since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic and the first in which the incumbent party lost.

  188. September 20, 2021

    Elections and Prime Ministers 

    Trudeau and Liberals Win Third Term, Second Consecutive Minority

    Embed from Getty Images

    The 36-day election campaign that began on 15 August finished in much the same way as the previous federal election in 2019 — with similar seat counts for all parties and a Liberal minority government. Erin O’Toole and the Conservatives had been in a statistical dead heat with the Liberals in late August and went on to narrowly win the popular vote for the second consecutive election. However, the bad press generated by an unfolding health crisis in Alberta under conservative premier Jason Kenney combined with the successful efforts of Maxime Bernier’s People’s Party of Canada to eat into the Conservatives’ vote share tipped the scales toward a Liberal victory. Following the election, many questioned the efficacy of spending more than $600 million on an election that replicated the status quo.

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