Search for "residential schools"

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Basil H. Johnston

Basil H. Johnston, Anishinaabe (Ojibwa) author, linguist, and teacher (born 13 July 1929 on Wasauksing First Nation, ON; died 8 September 2015 in Wiarton, ON).

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Racism

Racism is a belief that humans can be divided into a hierarchy of power on the basis of their differences in race and ethnicity. With some groups seen as superior to others on the sole basis of their racial or ethnic characteristics. Racism is frequently expressed through prejudice and discrimination. The belief can manifest itself through individuals, but also through societies and institutions.

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Lillian Elias

Lillian Elias (whose Inuvialuktun name is Panigavluk) is a teacher, language activist and a residential school Survivor (born 1943 in the Mackenzie Delta, NT). Influenced by her time at residential school, where administrators attempted to forcefully strip her of her language and culture, Elias has spent much of her life promoting and preserving her first language, Inuvialuktun (see Inuvialuit).

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Rothesay

Rothesay, NB, incorporated as a town in 1998, population 11 947 (2011c), 11 637 (2006c). It is situated on the eastern side of the Kennebecasis River, 22 km northeast of Saint John.

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Hupacasath (Opetchesaht)

The Hupacasath (Hupač̓asatḥ, formerly Opetchesaht) are a Nuu-chah-nulth First Nation residing in the Alberni Valley, Vancouver Island, BC. According to the nation, Hupacasath means “people residing above the water.” In October 2021, the federal government reported that there were 353 registered members of the Hupacasath Nation.

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Anti-Racism Education in Canada

Anti-racism education is an action-oriented educational strategy that emerged in Canada in the 1960s thanks to Black community members’ activism. The goal was to address racism and other related systems of social oppression in institutions like schools. Anti-racism educators in Canada address White supremacy and colonialism as factors behind today’s systemic racism. Over the years, anti-racism has evolved in Canadian schools to address educational racism and to discuss issues of equity, power, access, White privilege and systemic inequalities. Anti-racism initiatives continue to evolve in Canadian schools. They support students’ understanding of how to address racism while helping to create equity and societal change.

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A Place to Belong Podcast Episode 2: Battle of the Hatpins

Listen to A Place to Belong, a six-part podcast from Historica Canada.

On a cold January day in 1916, dozens of francophone parents fought off police who were trying to prevent French-language instruction at the Guigues School in Ottawa. In the infamous Battle of the Hatpins, mothers brandished rolling pins, cast-iron pans and hatpins and refused to allow police on the grounds.

In this episode, executive director of the Alliance des femmes de la francophonie canadienne, Soukaina Boutiyeb, helps us explore the centuries-long fight for francophone rights in Ontario – and the historic battle that marked it.

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Fred Loft

Frederick Ogilvie Loft (commonly known as Fred or F.O. Loft), Mohawk chief, activist, war veteran, reporter, author and lumberman (born 3 February 1861 on the Six Nations reserve, Grand River, Canada West [ON]; died 5 July 1934 in Toronto, ON). Loft founded the League of Indians of Canada, the first national Indigenous organization in Canada, in December 1918 (see Indigenous Political Organization and Activism in Canada). He fought in the First World War and is recognized as one of the most important Indigenous activists of the early 20th century. His Mohawk name was Onondeyoh, which translates as “Beautiful Mountain.”

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Tseshaht (Sheshaht)

The Tseshaht (also Ts’ishaa7ath or Ć̓išaaʔatḥ; formerly Sheshaht) are a Nuu-chah-nulth First Nation living in Barkley Sound and Alberni Inlet, Vancouver Island, BC. As of September 2018, the federal government counted 1,212 registered members of the Tseshaht First Nation, the majority of whom (728) live off reserve.

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Sixties Scoop

The “Sixties Scoop” refers to the large-scale removal or “scooping” of Indigenous children from their homes, communities and families of birth through the 1960s, and their subsequent adoption into predominantly non-Indigenous, middle-class families across the United States and Canada. This experience left many adoptees with a lost sense of cultural identity. The physical and emotional separation from their birth families continues to affect adult adoptees and Indigenous communities to this day.

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Smudging

Smudging is a cultural ceremony practised by a wide variety of Indigenous peoples in Canada and other parts of the world. Although practices differ, smudging is used for medicinal and practical purposes as well as for spiritual ceremonies. The practice generally involves prayer and the burning of sacred medicines, such as sweetgrass, cedar, sage and tobacco. While colonization has repressed such traditions, the practice of smudging has survived to the present day.

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Russian Canadians

People from Russia have been in Canada since at least the late 18th century. Over time, more and more Russians immigrated and settled in Canada. In the 2016 census, 622,445 Canadians reported being of Russian origin.

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Os-Ke-Non-Ton

Os-Ke-Non-Ton (also written Oskenonton, meaning deer in the Mohawk language, also known as “Running Deer”), baritone, actor, spiritual leader (né Louie Deer c. 1888 in Caughnawaga [now Kahnawá:ke], QC; died c. 1955 in Lily Dale, NY). Os-Ke-Non-Ton was a celebrated singer and performer who showcased his culture across the globe. He also worked as a healer at a spiritual centre in Lily Dale until his death.

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Outremont

Outremont, one of the smallest cities in terms of area of the MONTRÉAL Urban Community (MUC), is one of the most affluent, beautiful and picturesque residential communities on the island.

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White Rock

White Rock, BC, incorporated as a city in 1957, population 19 339 (2011c), 18 755 (2006c). The City of White Rock is 48 km by road southeast of Vancouver and is bounded on the north, east and west by Surrey. It began as a recreational resort on the shores of Semiahmoo Bay in SURREY.