Industry | The Canadian Encyclopedia

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  • Article


     The first formal advertisement in Canada was an offer of butter for sale that appeared in 1752 in an official government publication called the Halifax Gazette. In 1764 the Québec Gazette (later renamed the Chronicle-Telegraph) was founded, as much to carry news of merchandise as events.

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  • Article

    Canadian Aerospace Industry

    The aerospace industry includes the development and production of aircraft, satellites, rockets and their component parts. Aerospace is a major component of Canada’s economy, employs tens of thousands of Canadians, and accounts for a large part of Canadian trade with foreign markets. Canada boasts a diverse aerospace sector and is one of just a few countries that produce airplanes. Through close partnership with the United States space agency, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Canada has also launched satellites as well as built sophisticated components used on the International Space Station.

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  • Article

    Agricultural Exhibitions

    Agricultural exhibitions probably began as bazaars or fairs.

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  • Article

    Agricultural Implements Industry

    In 1997 there were 247 manufacturers of agricultural implements in Canada, employing 11 101 workers. Only 2 establishments employed more than 1000 workers; 90% of establishments employed fewer than 100 workers.

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  • Article

    Agriculture and Food

    Canada's agriculture and food industries have changed greatly in the years since the Second World War. Growth in Canada’s economy, and associated social changes, have altered the way food is produced, processed, handled, sold and consumed.

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  • Article

    Agriculture in Canada

    Agriculture is the practice of growing crops and rearing animals mainly for food. Farmers also produce other items such as wool from sheep and CBD oil from hemp plants. In Canada, agriculture is an important industry. Only about 7 per cent of Canada’s land can be farmed. Other marginal (poorer) land can be used to ranch cattle. Aquaculture operations are found on the East and West Coasts and in the Great Lakes. Some crops such as tomatoes, cannabis and flowers are grown in greenhouses in urban centres. Canadian agriculture faces many challenges. Some of these challenges concern crop protection, soil conservation, labour, climate change and health. Click here for definitions of key terms used in this article. This is the full-length entry about agriculture in Canada. For a plain-language summary, please Agriculture in Canada (Plain-Language Summary).

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  • Article


    Agroforestry is an intensive land management system that integrates the benefits from biological interactions created when trees or shrubs are intentionally grown with crops or livestock.

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  • Article

    Air Transport Industry

    As would be expected in a large, thinly populated country, air transport is a very important part of the Canadian economy.

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  • Article

    Asbestos Strike of 1949

    The Asbestos Strike began on 14 February 1949 and paralyzed major asbestos mines in Quebec for almost five months. The Quebec government sided with the main employer, an American-owned company, against the 5,000 unionized mine workers. From the start, the strike created conflicts between the provincial government and the Roman Catholic Church, which usually sided with the government (see Catholicism in Canada). One of the longest and most violent labour conflicts in Quebec history, it helped lay the groundwork for the Quiet Revolution.

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  • Macleans

    Aspers Acquire Black's Newspapers

    Leonard Asper wrapped up the last bit of business in the $3.5-billion deal that reshaped Canada's media landscape by cellular telephone in a car.This article was originally published in Maclean's Magazine on August 14, 2000

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  • Article

    Assets in Canada

    An asset is a useful and desirable thing or quality. The word is most often used in business, financial or accounting contexts. Canada has some of the world’s most impressive physical and natural resources. These resources may be viewed as “national assets.” The concept is also useful in personal finance, as housing is most Canadian families’ largest asset.

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  • Article

    Automotive Industry

    The automotive industry includes the production of cars and car parts (see automobile). Since the early 20th century, it has been one of Canada’s most significant manufacturing industries, as well as a key driver of Canada’s manufactured imports and exports, employment and overall industrial production. (See also Manufacturing in Canada; Industry in Canada.) Though dominated by foreign firms (largely American), Canada boasts a strong domestic parts manufacturing sector that emerged in the last part of the 20th century. Concentrated in Southern Ontario, Canada’s auto sector evolved as a consequence of industrial policies such as protectionism and free trade.

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  • Article

    Bailouts in Canada

    A bailout consists of providing financial help to a business or to the wider economy during times of trouble.

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  • Article

    Baking Industry

    The Canadian baking industry consists of companies that manufacture bread, cakes, pastries and similar perishable bakery products.

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  • Macleans

    Bank Mergers Beneficial but Feds Opposed

    WHEN JACK DZIERWA, a relative newcomer to Bay Street, wrote about bank mergers in a research report last July, he broached a subject still too sticky for some to want to discuss.This article was originally published in Maclean's Magazine on November 18, 2002

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