New France | The Canadian Encyclopedia

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  • Article

    A Dish with One Spoon

    The term a dish with one spoon refers to a concept developed by the Indigenous peoples of the Great Lakes region and northeastern North America. It was used to describe how land can be shared to the mutual benefit of all its inhabitants. According to the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois), the concept originated many hundreds of years ago and contributed greatly to the creation of the “Great League of Peace” — the Iroquois Confederacy made up of the Seneca, Cayuga, Oneida, Onondaga, and Mohawk nations. The Anishinaabeg (the Ojibwe, Odawa, Potawatomi, Mississauga, Saulteaux and Algonquin nations) refer to “a dish with one spoon” or “our dish” as “Gdoo – naaganinaa.”

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    https://d2ttikhf7xbzbs.cloudfront.net/media/media/122dc04b-d0a1-4551-a912-1bee8991746b.jpg A Dish with One Spoon
  • Article

    Brandy Parliament

    Brandy Parliament, an assembly of 20 notables of New France, who on 10 October 1678 were asked their opinion of the sale of brandy to the Indigenous peoples. The title was bestowed in 1921 by historian W.B. Munro.

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    https://d2ttikhf7xbzbs.cloudfront.net/media/Categories_Placeholders/Dreamstime/dreamstimeextralarge_94712698167.jpg Brandy Parliament
  • Article

    Canada

    The name “Canada,” is derived from the Iroquoian word kanata, meaning a village or settlement. On 13 August 1535, as Jacques Cartier was nearing Île d'Anticosti, two Indigenous youths he was bringing back from France informed him that the route to Canada (“chemin de Canada”) lay to the south of the island. By Canada they meant the village of Stadacona, on the future site of Quebec City. Cartier used the word in that sense, but also referred to “the province of Canada,” meaning the area subject to Donnacona, chief at Stadacona. The name was soon applied to a much larger region. The “Harleian” world map of c. 1547, the first to show the discoveries made on Cartier's second voyage, applied it to an area north of the gulf and river St. Lawrence. By 1550 maps were also placing the name south of the river. (See also Cartography in Canada: 1500s.)

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    https://d2ttikhf7xbzbs.cloudfront.net/media/new_article_images/CartographyInCanada1500s/DesceliersMap1546.jpg Canada
  • Editorial

    Samuel de Champlain and the Founding of Quebec

    The following article is an editorial written by The Canadian Encyclopedia staff. Editorials are not usually updated.

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    https://d3d0lqu00lnqvz.cloudfront.net/media/media/16b8b94b-0ca0-468a-8f8f-09141c3462be.jpg Samuel de Champlain and the Founding of Quebec
  • Article

    Communauté des biens

    Communauté des biens (community of property), term used in the legal codes of NEW FRANCE and Québec to describe the pooled assets of husband and wife. It began as part of the Coutume de Paris, introduced about 1640 and the sole legal code of the colony after 1664.

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    https://d2ttikhf7xbzbs.cloudfront.net/media/media/16b8b94b-0ca0-468a-8f8f-09141c3462be.jpg Communauté des biens
  • Article

    Communauté des habitants

    Communauté des habitants (Compagnie des habitants), colonial merchants who held the fur trade monopoly in New France 1645-63.

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    https://d2ttikhf7xbzbs.cloudfront.net/media/media/16b8b94b-0ca0-468a-8f8f-09141c3462be.jpg Communauté des habitants
  • Article

    Company of One Hundred Associates

    The Company of New France, or Company of One Hundred Associates (Compagnie des Cent-Associés) as it was more commonly known, was formed in France in 1627. Its purpose was to increase New France’s population while enjoying a monopoly on almost all colonial trade. It took bold steps but suffered many setbacks. The company folded in 1663. It earned little return on its investment, though it helped establish New France as a viable colony.

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    https://d2ttikhf7xbzbs.cloudfront.net/media/media/e4ec1e55-01c2-4b77-a220-f05a84fd4c9c.jpg Company of One Hundred Associates
  • Article

    Compagnie des Indes occidentales

    The Compagnie des Indes occidentales was a trading company that drove France’s colonial economy from 1664 to 1674. Its name translates to West Indies Company. King Louis XIV gave the company exclusive rights to trade and govern in all French colonies. Its territory extended from the Americas to the Caribbean and Western Africa. In addition to natural resources such as furs and sugar, the Compagnie traded enslaved people. This company is not to be confused with the French trading company founded by John Law and renamed Compagnie des Indes in 1719.

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    https://d2ttikhf7xbzbs.cloudfront.net/media/Categories_Placeholders/Dreamstime/dreamstimeextralarge_3326172676.jpg Compagnie des Indes occidentales
  • Article

    Compagnie du Nord

    Compagnie du Nord (Compagnie de la Baie du Nord), fd 1682 by Canadian merchants, led by Charles Aubert de la Chesnaye, to trade into Hudson Bay by sea.

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    https://d2ttikhf7xbzbs.cloudfront.net/media/Categories_Placeholders/Dreamstime/dreamstimeextralarge_3326172676.jpg Compagnie du Nord
  • Article

    Croix de Saint Louis

     In Canada Louis-Hector de CALLIERE (1694) was the first to receive the decoration; Louis de Buade de FRONTENAC received it in 1697. The first Canadian chevalier was Pierre Le Moyne d' IBERVILLE (1699). By 1760 some 145 men had been decorated in Canada.

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    https://d2ttikhf7xbzbs.cloudfront.net/media/media/22f54a67-0b82-4032-a05c-ab1245eb0f3f.jpg Croix de Saint Louis
  • Article

    Des Sauvages, ou, Voyage de Samuel Champlain

    Des Sauvages, ou, Voyage de Samuel Champlain (1603) records Champlain's first voyage to Canada as François Gravé du Pont's guest aboard La Bonne Renommée searching for the Northwest Passage.

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    https://d2ttikhf7xbzbs.cloudfront.net/media/media/16b8b94b-0ca0-468a-8f8f-09141c3462be.jpg Des Sauvages, ou, Voyage de Samuel Champlain
  • Article

    Filles du Roi

    Unmarried women sponsored by the king to immigrate to New France between 1663 and 1673. Private interests gave priority to bringing over male workers, and the French government and religious communities wanted to correct the gender imbalance in the colonies.

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    https://d2ttikhf7xbzbs.cloudfront.net/media/media/d698c031-e790-4c17-906a-5b880e71e24d.jpg Filles du Roi
  • Article

    Fur Trade in Canada

    The fur trade was a vast commercial enterprise across the wild, forested expanse of what is now Canada. It was at its peak for nearly 250 years, from the early 17th to the mid-19th centuries. It was sustained primarily by the trapping of beavers to satisfy the European demand for felt hats. The intensely competitive trade opened the continent to exploration and settlement. It financed missionary work, established social, economic and colonial relationships between Europeans and Indigenous people, and played a formative role in the creation and development of Canada.(This is the full-length entry about the fur trade. For a plain-language summary, please see Fur Trade in Canada (Plain Language Summary).)

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    https://d2ttikhf7xbzbs.cloudfront.net/media/media/e4ec1e55-01c2-4b77-a220-f05a84fd4c9c.jpg Fur Trade in Canada
  • Collection

    Fur Trade in Canada

    The fur trade was a vast commercial enterprise across the wild, forested expanse of what is now Canada. It was at its peak for nearly 250 years, from the early 17th to the mid-19th centuries. It was sustained primarily by the trapping of beavers to satisfy the European demand for felt hats. The intensely competitive trade opened the continent to exploration and settlement. It financed missionary work, established social, economic and colonial relationships between Europeans...

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    https://d3d0lqu00lnqvz.cloudfront.net/media/media/e4ec1e55-01c2-4b77-a220-f05a84fd4c9c.jpg Fur Trade in Canada
  • Article

    Fur Trade in Canada (Plain-Language Summary)

    The fur trade began in the 1600s in what is now Canada. It continued for more than 250 years. Europeans traded with Indigenous people for beaver pelts. The demand for felt hats in Europe drove this business. The fur trade was one of the main reasons that Europeans explored and colonized Canada. It built relationships between Europeans and Indigenous peoples. (This article is a plain-language summary of the fur trade. If you are interested in reading about this topic in more depth, please see our full-length entry, Fur Trade in Canada.)

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    https://d2ttikhf7xbzbs.cloudfront.net/media/article_files/fur-trade/c002771k.jpg Fur Trade in Canada (Plain-Language Summary)

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