Quebec | The Canadian Encyclopedia


Quebec is the largest Canadian province. At 1.5 million km², its territory accounts for 15.5 per cent of Canada's total area. The province shares borders with Ontario, New Brunswick, and Newfoundland and Labrador.

Bonhomme Carnaval at the Quebec Winter Carnival, 2013.
  1. June 24, 1636

    Jesuit Relations

    Sports and Culture 

    First Saint-Jean-Baptiste Celebrations in New France

    The earliest record of Saint-Jean-Baptiste Day celebrations in the colony of New France appears in the Jesuit Relations of 1636. The tradition has its origins in pagan Europe with the lighting of bonfires to mark the summer solstice. With the spread of Christianity in the middle ages, the custom became tied to the feast day of Saint John the Baptist (24 June). Saint-Jean-Baptiste celebrations have endured in French Canada, and the day is now officially known as the Fête nationale du Québec (national holiday of Québec).

  2. June 22, 1774


    Quebec Act Passed

    The Quebec Act was passed (effective 1 May 1775); it established French civil law, British criminal law, freedom of worship for Roman Catholics and government by appointed council. It extended the boundaries of the province to the Ohio Valley.

  3. April 01, 1776

    Loyalists at the Site of Kingston


    First Loyalists Arrive

    The first United Empire Loyalists — 1,124 refugees from New England — arrived in Halifax, NS. Another 40,000 or so followed them to NS and to Québec. The immigration resulted in the formation of New Brunswick and Upper Canada.

  4. June 02, 1779

    Communication and Transportation 

    Gazette Littéraire Ceases Publication

    The Gazette Littéraire pour la ville et district de Montréal ceased publication. It was the first entirely French newspaper in Canada.

  5. June 02, 1779

    Communication and Transportation 

    Newspapermen Arrested

    Newspapermen Fleury Mesplet and Valentin Jautard were arrested by order of the governor after criticizing a judge''s rulings in their paper Gazette Littéraire.

  6. October 01, 1781


    Loyalist Reverend John Stuart Brings Slaves to Québec

    Many Loyalists who settled in Upper Canada saw no conflict between the institution of slavery and their moral beliefs. The Reverend John Stuart of Kingston, the first minister of the Church of England in Upper Canada, recorded in his diary that he brought Black slaves with him from the Mohawk Valley.

  7. August 25, 1785

    Communication and Transportation 

    Montreal Gazette Published

    Fleury Mesplet published the Montreal Gazette/La Gazette de Montréal, the oldest newspaper still in existence in Canada.

  8. December 26, 1791

    Constitutional Act, 1791


    Constitutional Act

    The Constitutional Act, which created the colonies of Upper and Lower Canada, came into effect. It had been passed 10 June and had received royal assent 19 June. The formal division of the Province of Québec had taken place 21 August.

  9. January 05, 1805

    Communication and Transportation 

    Quebec Mercury Published

    The first edition of the Quebec Mercury newspaper was published.

  10. November 22, 1806

    Communication and Transportation 

    Le Canadien Published

    The Parti canadien newspaper, Le Canadien, was first published in Québec City

  11. April 11, 1807

    Hart & Papineau


    Hart Elected

    Ezekiel Hart was the first Jewish politician to be elected in Québec (Lower Canada at the time), in Trois-Rivières. The session of the Assembly was coming to an end and Hart had to wait until January 1808 to be sworn in. He eschewed the Christian Oath of Office and was denied his seat.

  12. December 12, 1828

    Communication and Transportation 

    Québec Newspaper Launched

    Daniel Tracey launched the bi-weekly newspaper The Irish Vindicator and Canada General Advertiser, later the Vindicator and Canadian Advertiser, in Montreal.

  13. January 01, 1832


    Cholera Epidemic Spreads

    Grosse Île, near Québec, was opened as a quarantine station during the cholera epidemics and all ships stopped there for inspection. This station was a futile attempt by the government to control the disease that killed up to 10% of the population.

  14. September 27, 1839


    Patriotes Banished to Australia

    The transport ship Buffalo left Lower Canada carrying 58 Patriotes bound for Australia. The Patriotes were exiled for their involvement in the Lower Canada Rebellion of 1837–38. The rebels were imprisoned at Longbottom Stockade in Sydney, spending their time breaking rocks and collecting oyster shells to make lime. By 1844, all had received pardons. Most returned to Canada.

  15. June 28, 1845


    Fire at Saint-Jean (Que)

    Fire struck Saint-Jean, Qué, jumping from house to house and destroying 1300 homes. In total, more than 18 000 people were left homeless.

  16. April 25, 1849

    Montréal Riots


    Parliament Buildings Burned

    The Parliament Buildings in Montréal were burned down in riots protesting Lord Elgin's signing of the Rebellion Losses Bill. The seat of government was removed from Montréal and the Parliament met alternatively in Toronto and Québec City.

  17. January 27, 1850

    Apostle St Bartholomew

    Sports and Culture 

    Birth of Louis-Philippe Hébert

    Louis-Philippe Hébert, the principal Québec sculptor of his generation, was born at Ste-Sophie de Mégantic, Qué.

  18. February 07, 1850

    Indigenous Peoples  Resources and Environment 

    Mica Bay Inquiry

    The inquiry into the attack at Mica Bay, Quebec began with the testimony of agent John Bonner of the Quebec Mining Company. The Mica Bay Incident occurred in November 1849 when First Nations and Métis people, led by white businessman Allan Macdonell, attacked the company's mining installations in a dispute over mining rights in the area.

  19. October 11, 1850

    Communication and Transportation 

    Railway to Longueuil Opens

    The St Lawrence and Atlantic Railroad was opened from Longueuil to Richmond, Québec.

  20. June 06, 1853


    Gavazzi Riots

    Riots occurred in Québec against a former Italian priest, Alessandro Gavazzi; another riot in Montréal on June 9 left 10 dead when troops fired on the crowd.

  21. January 01, 1854

    Sports and Culture 

    Montreal’s First Jewish Cemetery Is Established

    Montreal’s first Jewish cemetery — Shearith Israel — was established on Mount Royal. It was followed in 1863 by Shaar Hashomayim.

  22. January 01, 1857

    Indigenous Peoples 

    Gradual Civilization Act Passed in the Province of Canada

    The government attempts to assimilate First Nations men by offering them the right to vote if they voluntarily enfranchise. This means giving up rights, including treaty rights. Only one person elects to do so under this Act. (See also Indigenous Peoples in Canadian Law.)

  23. June 29, 1864

    Train Wreck at St-Hilaire


    Rail Disaster at St Hilaire

    A Grand Trunk Railway train plunged off the Beloeil Bridge into the Richelieu River at St-Hilaire, Qué, killing 99 people and injuring another 100. It was Canada's worst train wreck.

  24. October 10, 1864


    Québec Conference

    Confederation was debated at the Québec Conference, where the Québec Resolutions were agreed upon, paving the way for Confederation. John A. Macdonald is said to have written 50 of the 72 resolutions.

  25. July 01, 1867


    Belleau Appointed Lieutenant-Governor

    The Honourable Sir Narcisse-Fortunat Belleau was appointed Québec''s first lieutenant-governor, serving until his death on 11 February 1873.

  26. July 15, 1867


    Chauveau Becomes Premier

    Pierre-Joseph-Olivier Chauveau, leader of the provincial Conservative Party, became Québec''s first premier.

  27. September 25, 1871

    Louis-Joseph Papineau, politician


    Death of Louis-Joseph Papineau

    Politician and defender of French Canada’s national heritage Louis-Joseph Papineau died in Montebello, Québec. Initially a supporter of British government systems, Papineau’s perspective changed, believing that the English merchant class directly opposed French Canadian interests. His increasingly radical approach greatly influenced the actions of the Patriotes in the Rebellion of 1837.

  28. February 04, 1873

    Desmarteau, Étienne

    Sports and Culture 

    Birth of Étienne Desmarteau

    Étienne Desmarteau, first Canadian to win an Olympic gold medal, was born at Boucherville, Quebec.

  29. February 17, 1873


    Caron Appointed Lieutenant-Governor

    The Honourable René-Édouard Caron was appointed Québec''s second lieutenant-governor, serving until his death on 13 December 1876.

  30. February 27, 1873


    Ouimet Becomes Premier

    Gédéon Ouimet, leader of the provincial Conservative party, became Québec''s second premier.

  31. September 22, 1874


    Boucher de Boucherville Becomes Premier

    Charles-Eugène Boucher de Boucherville, leader of the provincial Conservative party, became Québec''s third premier.

  32. February 23, 1875


    Secret Ballot in Québec

    A new electoral law was instated in Québec, enforcing the secret ballot for the first time.

  33. December 15, 1876


    Letellier de Saint-Just Appointed Lieutenant-Governor

    The Honourable Luc Letellier de Saint-Just was appointed Québec''s third lieutenant-governor, serving until 25 July 1879.

  34. March 08, 1878


    Joly De Lotbinière Becomes Premier

    Henri-Gustave Joly De Lotbinière, leader of the provincial Liberal party, became Québec''s fourth premier.

  35. February 09, 1879

    Communication and Transportation 

    North Shore Railway Complete

    The North Shore Railway between Montréal and Québec City was completed.

  36. July 26, 1879


    Robitaille Appointed Lieutenant-Governor

    The Honourable Théodore Robitaille was appointed Québec''s 4th lieutenant-governor, serving until 6 November 1884.

  37. October 31, 1879


    Chapleau Becomes Premier

    Joseph-Adolphe Chapleau, leader of the provincial Conservative Party, became Québec''s fifth premier.

  38. July 17, 1880

    Sports and Culture 

    Birth of Mack Sennett

    Early Hollywood director, producer and actor Mack Sennett (born Mikall Sinnott) was born in Danville, QC. In 1912, he co-founded the Keystone film company, and in the next few years created there a style of wild and rambunctious comedy that made his name a byword for delirious, uninhibited slapstick.

  39. July 31, 1882


    Mousseau Becomes Premier

    Joseph-Alfred Mousseau, leader of the provincial Conservative Party, became Québec''s sixth premier.

  40. October 20, 1884

    Communication and Transportation 

    La Presse Published

    The first issue of La Presse newspaper was published in Montréal.

  41. November 07, 1884


    Masson Appointed Lieutenant-Governor

    The Honourable Louis-François-Rodrigue Masson was appointed Québec''s 5th lieutenant-governor, serving until 24 October 1887.

  42. January 25, 1887


    Taillon Becomes Québec's 8th Premier

    Louis-Olivier Taillon, leader of the provincial Conservative Party, became Québec''s eighth premier.

  43. January 29, 1887


    Mercier Becomes Premier

    Honoré Mercier, leader of the Liberal Party, was sworn in as Québec''s ninth premier.

  44. October 29, 1887


    Angers Appointed Lieutenant-Governor

    The Honourable Auguste-Réal Angers was appointed Québec''s 6th lieutenant-governor, serving until 5 December 1892.

  45. September 19, 1889


    Rockslide in Québec

    A massive rockslide smashed much of Champlain Street in Québec City, killing 45.

  46. December 21, 1891


    Boucher de Boucherville Becomes Premier Again

    Charles Eugene Boucher de Boucherville, leader of the Conservative Party, became premier of Québec for the second time.

  47. December 12, 1892


    Chapleau Appointed Lieutenant-Governor

    The Honourable Joseph-Adolphe Chapleau was appointed Québec''s 7th lieutenant-governor, serving until 29 January 1898.

  48. December 16, 1892


    Taillon Becomes Premier

    Louis-Olivier Taillon, leader of the Conservative Party, became premier of Québec for the second time.

  49. May 11, 1896


    Flynn Becomes Premier

    Edmund James Flynn, leader of the Conservative Party, became Québec''s 12th premier.

  50. May 24, 1897


    Marchand Becomes Premier

    Félix-Gabriel Marchand, leader of the Liberal Party, became Québec''s 13th premier.

  51. February 01, 1898


    Jetté Appointed Lieutenant-Governor

    The Honourable Louis-Amable Jetté was appointed Québec''s 8th lieutenant-governor, serving until 15 September 1908.

  52. March 17, 1900


    Fire at Académie de musique de Québec

    The 1600 seat theatre of the Académie de musique de Québec was destroyed by fire.

  53. April 26, 1900


    Fire in Hull

    Some 15 000 people lost their homes and several died as the worst fire in Canadian history destroyed two-thirds of Hull, Québec.

  54. October 03, 1900


    Parent Becomes Premier

    Simon-Napoléon Parent, leader of the Liberal Party, became Québec''s 14th premier.

  55. November 28, 1902

    Sports and Culture 

    First Quebec Symphony Orchestra Concert

    The Quebec Symphony Orchestra played its first concert, at Tara Hall on rue Sainte-Anne. Joseph Vézina was the conductor.

  56. March 31, 1904

    Communication and Transportation 

    Cars in Montréal

    A city-wide survey revealed that there were 45 cars in Montréal. That number would increase to 102 the next year, forcing the Québec government to change its law on cars.

  57. March 23, 1905


    Gouin Becomes Premier

    Lomer Gouin, leader of the Liberal Party, became Québec''s 15th premier.

  58. April 23, 1905


    Death of Gédéon Ouimet

    Gédéon Ouimet, premier of Québec from 1873-1874, died at Saint-Hilaire, Québec.


  59. August 29, 1907

    Québec Bridge Disaster


    Québec Bridge Disaster, 1907

    Part of the Québec Bridge, the longest cantilever bridge in the world, collapsed, killing 75 workmen. Blame for the collapse was placed on the American engineer Theodore Cooper and faulty we plates.

  60. June 12, 1908

    Communication and Transportation 

    Birth of Joseph-Alphonse Ouimet

    CBC president Joseph-Alphonse Ouimet, under whose leadership the national television service was established from coast to coast and in both languages, was born at Montréal.

  61. September 15, 1908


    Pelletier Appointed Lieutenant-Governor

    The Honourable Charles-Alphonse-Pantaléon Pelletier was appointed Québec''s 9th lieutenant-governor, serving until his death on 29 April 1911.

  62. May 14, 1912


    Ottawa Transfers Land

    The federal government divested itself of responsibility for vast tracks of northern land by granting boundary extensions to Manitoba, Ontario and Québec.

  63. May 15, 1912


    Québec Border Extended

    The Québec border was extended to incorporate the Ungava district.

  64. February 12, 1915


    LeBlanc Appointed Lieutenant-Governor

    The Honourable Pierre-Évariste LeBlanc was appointed Québec's 11th lieutenant-governor, serving until his death on 18 October 1918.

  65. September 08, 1915


    Birth of Father Benoît Lacroix

    Father Benoît Lacroix, a leading religious and intellectual figure in Québec whose career spanned nearly 75 years, was born in Saint-Michel-de-Bellechasse, QC. "Père Lacroix" was a theologian, philosopher, medievalist, journalist and teacher who published some 50 books on science and religion. The popular priest was an Officer of the Order of Canada and the National Order of Québec.

  66. September 11, 1916

    Québec Bridge Collapse, 1916


    Québec Bridge Disaster, 1916

    A new centre span of the Québec Bridge fell into the river as it was being hoisted into position, killing 13 men.

  67. July 05, 1918

    Communication and Transportation 

    Birth of René Lecavalier

    Sports announcer René Lecavalier, who called the first hockey game broadcast on television by Radio-Canada, was born at Montréal.

  68. October 23, 1918


    Fitzpatrick Appointed Lieutenant-Governor

    The Right Honourable Charles Fitzpatrick was appointed Québec''s 12th lieutenant-governor, serving until 31 October 1923.

  69. December 13, 1918

    Michelle Tisseyre

    Communication and Transportation 

    Birth of Michelle Tisseyre

    Mary Jane Michelle Tisseyre (née Ahern), OC, television host, journalist and translator was born in Montréal, QC. The first woman to present a "Grand Journal" newscast for CBC French services (Radio-Canada), Tisseyre also hosted the very first talk show in Canada.

  70. April 10, 1919

    Sports and Culture 

    Referendum on Alcoholic Drinks

    Québec held a referendum on the sale of alcoholic drinks in the province. Over 70 per cent of Quebeckers voted yes to the sale of liquor in the province.

  71. April 17, 1919


    Birth of Gilles Lamontagne

    Former Québec City mayor and federal Member of Parliament Gilles Lamontagne was born in Montréal. Lamontagne served with the Royal Canadian Air Force during the Second World War and survived two years as a prisoner of war after his plane was shot down over the Netherlands. In addition to his tenure as mayor of Québec City from 1965 to 1977, his distinguished political career included positions as defence minister in Pierre Trudeau’s Liberal government and as lieutenant-governor of Québec. He was named an Officer of the Order of Canada in 1990.

  72. July 09, 1920


    Taschereau Becomes Premier

    Louis-Alexandre Taschereau, leader of the Liberal Party, became Québec''s 16th premier.

  73. November 13, 1922


    Birth of Madeleine Sherwood

    Actor Madeleine Sherwood was born in Montréal, Québec. She had a long career in the United States, performing in Broadway shows, plays by Arthur Miller and Tennessee Williams, and the 1960s TV series The Flying Nun. A civil rights activist, she was blacklisted for a time in the 1950s, during the McCarthy era, and was arrested for participating in a Freedom Walk in Alabama in 1963. She returned to Canada later in life.

  74. October 07, 1923


    Sports and Culture 

    Birth of Jean-Paul Riopelle

    Painter Jean-Paul Riopelle, who was an original member of the Automatistes and is the most internationally acclaimed Canadian painter, was born at Montréal.

  75. October 31, 1923


    Brodeur Appointed Lieutenant-Governor

    The Honourable Louis-Philippe Brodeur was appointed Québec''s 13th lieutenant-governor, serving until his death on 2 January 1924.

  76. January 10, 1924


    Pérodeau Appointed Lieutenant-Governor

    The Honourable Narcisse Pérodeau was appointed Québec''s 14th lieutenant-governor, serving until 10 January 1929.

  77. August 31, 1924

    Saint Joseph's Oratory

    Sports and Culture 

    Cornerstone of Saint Joseph’s Oratory is Laid

    Before a crowd of 35,000, the cornerstone of the future Saint Joseph’s Oratory was laid. Located on the northwestern slope of Mount Royal in Montreal, the minor basilica is the tallest church in Canada and one of the largest domed structures in the world. The Oratory is an important landmark and symbol of Montreal and attracts about two million visitors a year.

  78. January 10, 1929


    Gouin Appointed Lieutenant-Governor

    The Honourable Lomer Gouin was appointed Québec''s 15th lieutenant-governor, serving until his death on 28 March 1929.

  79. April 04, 1929


    Carroll Appointed Lieutenant-Governor

    The Honourable Henry George Carroll was appointed Québec''s 16th lieutenant-governor, serving until 3 May 1934.

  80. January 01, 1930

    Beaver Habitat

    Indigenous Peoples  Resources and Environment 

    ​Hudson’s Bay Company Beaver Management Program

    During the Depression, the HBC saw decreased demand for beaver furs, and realized that to keep the price competitive the number of furs taken in Northern Québec would have to be limited. The company’s main suppliers in the area, the Cree, were also suffering because the beaver had been over-trapped. The company embarked on a conservation program that put the Cree in charge of a sanctuary system, a program that was successful and lasted into the 1950s.

  81. January 03, 1930


    Birth of Marcel Dubé

    Québec playwright Marcel Dubé, who also wrote for TV and radio, was born in Montréal. In addition to his literary career, Dubé held several distinguished positions related to the promotion of the French language, serving as the first secretary of the Conseil de la langue française from 1977 to 1979.

  82. August 09, 1930

    Jacques Parizeau, politician


    Birth of Jacques Parizeau

    Jacques Parizeau, who nearly led Québec to sovereignty in the 1995 referendum as premier and head of the Parti Québécois, was born in Montréal. An economist by training, Parizeau was a key figure in the Quiet Revolution of the 1960s, helping to establish public institutions such as the Québec Pension Plan and the Caisse de dépôt et placement du Québec.

  83. May 03, 1934


    Patenaude Appointed Lieutenant-Governor

    The Honourable Ésioff-Léon Patenaude was appointed Québec''s 17th lieutenant-governor, serving until 30 December 1939.

  84. September 21, 1934

    Leonard Cohen


    Birth of Leonard Cohen

    Poet, novelist, singer and songwriter Leonard Cohen was born in Westmount, Québec. Cohen was one of the most iconic Canadian artists of the 20th century. A sage, mystic, bohemian and romantic, he built an acclaimed body of literary work and a revered career in pop music.

  85. June 11, 1936


    Godbout Becomes Premier

    Joseph-Adélard Godbout, leader of the Liberal Party, became Québec''s 17th premier.

  86. August 12, 1938


    Birth of Jean-Paul L'Allier

    Jean-Paul L'Allier, who served as a Québec's minister of Communications during the October Crisis and later as mayor of Québec City from 1989 to 2005, was born in Hudson, Québec.

  87. December 30, 1939


    Fiset Appointed Lieutenant-Governor

    The Major General the Honourable Eugène Fiset was appointed Québec''s 18th lieutenant-governor, serving until 3 October 1950.

  88. April 25, 1940


    Québec Women Get Vote

    Québec women were the last in Canada to earn the rights to vote and run for office in provincial elections.

  89. January 20, 1941

    Sports and Culture 

    Birth of Pierre Lalonde

    Beloved Québec crooner and television personality Pierre Lalonde was born in Montréal. Lalonde began his singing career at age four and started releasing music in the early 1960s. Having mastered English during his studies in the United States as a teen, he achieved success in Canada and across the border, where he performed under the name Peter Martin. In 2011, he was awarded the Québec National Assembly’s Medal of Honour.

  90. November 08, 1942


    German Agent Lands

    The first German agent landed from a U-boat off New Carlisle, Québec and was promptly arrested by the police.

  91. January 13, 1943


    HMCS Ville de Quebec Sinks U-Boat

    HMCS Ville de Quebec sank the German submarine U-224 in the western Mediterranean Sea.

  92. June 29, 1944

    Indigenous Peoples  People 

    Birth of Charlie Watt

    Inuk leader Charlie Watt, who negotiated the James Bay Agreement, was born at Fort Chimo, Qué.

  93. August 30, 1944


    Duplessis Becomes Premier Again

    Maurice Le Noblet Duplessis, leader of the Union Nationale, became premier of Québec for the second time.

  94. January 01, 1949

    Indigenous Peoples 

    First Nations Win Right to Vote Provincially

    Except in Nova Scotia and Newfoundland, Status Indians had been barred from voting provincially. Beginning with British Columbia in 1949 and ending with Quebec in 1969, First Nations peoples gradually win the right to vote in provincial elections without losing status or treaty rights.  

  95. September 09, 1949


    Airliner Sabotaged

    Twenty-three people were killed when a Québec Airways DC-3 was sabotaged with a bomb and exploded and crashed near St-Joachim, Québec. J.A. Guay and two accomplices were convicted and hanged for the crime.

  96. January 26, 1950

    Resources and Environment 

    Record Temperatures in Southern Québec

    Unseasonable temperatures across the province of Québec created one of the most erratic fluctuations in the province''s history. Temperatures in the northwestern part of the province hovered near zero while heat records in the 15o C range were set in Montréal, Sherbrooke and Chicoutimi.

  97. October 03, 1950


    Fauteux Appointed Lieutenant-Governor

    The Honourable Gaspard Fauteux was appointed Québec''s 19th lieutenant-governor, serving until 14 February 1958.

  98. January 09, 1953


    Pitre Hanged

    Marguerite Pitre, the last woman to be hanged in Canada, was executed at the Bordeaux jail. She was accused of participating in a plot to crash a Québec Airways DC-3 out of l'Ancienne-Lorette (Québec City), which killed 23 people. It was the first plane crash caused by a criminal act in North America.

  99. June 16, 1955

    Boy With a Piece of Bread

    Sports and Culture 

    Death of Ozias Leduc

    Ozias Leduc, whose paintings of daily life and nature have both a symbolic and spiritual dimension, died at St-Hyacinthe, Qué.

  100. October 28, 1956

    Communication and Transportation 

    Lévesque's Point de mire

    The first episode of René Lévesque's Point de mire aired on Radio-Canada. He quickly became a star journalist, much appreciated by his viewers.

  101. March 06, 1957


    Padlock Act Nullified

    The Supreme Court of Canada nullified the Québec "Padlock Law" of 1937. The Act was a 1937 law in Québec that allowed police to close, or padlock, for one year any building where "communism or bolshevism" was being promoted.

  102. August 11, 1957


    First Civilian Air Disaster

    The first major civilian air disaster in Canada occurred during a violent thunderstorm over Issoudun, 40 km southwest of Québec City, when a chartered Maritime Central Airways DC-4 crashed, killing all 79 aboard.

  103. February 14, 1958


    Gagnon Appointed Lieutenant-Governor

    The Honourable Onésime Gagnon was appointed Québec''s 20th lieutenant-governor, serving until his death on 30 September 1961.

  104. September 11, 1959

    Paul Sauvé


    Sauvé Becomes Premier

    Joseph-Mignault-Paul Sauvé, leader of the Union Nationale, became Québec''s 21st premier.

  105. January 08, 1960


    Barrette Becomes Premier

    Antonio Barrette, leader of the Union Nationale, became Québec''s 22nd premier.

  106. September 10, 1960


    Rassemblement pour l'indépendance nationale Founded

    The Rassemblement pour l'indépendance nationale, a left-wing independence movement in Québec, was founded.

  107. March 24, 1961

    Sports and Culture 

    Parent Commission

    The Royal Commission of Inquiry on Education (Parent Commission) was created in Québec. Chaired by Alphonse-Marie Parent, the commission was the impetus for Québec's major school reforms in the 1960s.

  108. October 11, 1961


    Comtois Appointed Lieutenant-Governor

    The Honourable Paul Comtois was appointed Québec''s 21st lieutenant-governor, serving until his death on 21 February 1966.

  109. July 06, 1962

    Resources and Environment 

    Société Générale de Financement

    The Québec government formed Société générale de financement (SGF) to facilitate industrial development in Québec.

  110. March 26, 1963

    Voisine, Roch

    Sports and Culture 

    Birth of Roch Voisine

    Roch Voisine, popular award winning Quebec singer, was born at St Basile, NB.

  111. April 20, 1963


    FLQ Bombing

    Wilfred O'Neill was killed by a bomb blast at a Montréal army recruiting centre. The bomb was the work of the terrorist group Front de libération du Québec (FLQ).

  112. November 16, 1963

    Resources and Environment 

    Recycled Paper

    Cascades Inc. began producing the first recycled paper in Québec.

  113. November 29, 1963


    Airliner Crashes in Québec

    A TCA airliner with 111 passengers and a crew of 7 crashed after take-off near Ste-Thérèse-de-Blainville, Qué, killing all 118 persons aboard.

  114. June 18, 1964


    Married Women in Québec Gain Legal Capacity

    Under Bill 16, Québec women were able to act independently of their husbands, i.e., make decisions without their husband’s approval. This ability to have legal capacity had a huge impact, particularly on contractual transactions. The bill was championed by Marie-Claire Kirkland-Casgrain, Québec’s first female member of the Legislative Assembly.

  115. October 10, 1964


    Controversial Visit to Quebec

    Until the 1960s, the monarchy was popular in Quebec because the Crown was viewed as a protector of minority rights. However, during the Quiet Revolution of the 1960s, attitudes toward the monarchy changed and the Queen was seen as a symbol of British oppression. After addressing the National Assembly in French, the Queen faced crowds of protesters who turned their backs on her and chanted, “Elizabeth, go home.” The police crackdown on these protests became known as “Truncheon Sunday.”

  116. February 27, 1965


    Québec Signs Agreement with France

    The first international agreement of Québec was signed with France, beginning periodic clashes with the federal government over the role and presence of Québec in international affairs.

  117. August 06, 1965



    City of Laval Charter

    The 14 municipalities of Île Jésus merged, creating the new city boundaries of Laval and making it the second largest city in Québec.

  118. February 22, 1966


    LaPointe Appointed Lieutenant-Governor

    The Honourable Hugues LaPointe was appointed Québec''s 22nd lieutenant-governor, serving until 27 April 1978.

  119. April 24, 1966


    Fédération des femmes Convention

    The first convention of the Fédération des femmes du Québec opened, with Thérèse Casgrain as president. The group's mission was to gain equal pay for women and an increase in family allowance.

  120. June 16, 1966

    Johnson, Daniel


    Johnson Becomes Premier

    Daniel Johnson Sr, leader of the Union Nationale, became Québec''s 24th premier.

  121. January 01, 1967

    Indigenous Peoples 

    Equal Rights for Indian Women Association Created

    Equal Rights for Indian Women (ERIW) was established in Québec. A provincial organization, ERIW was founded by Mohawk women’s rights activist Mary Two-Axe Earley, who fought the loss of Indian status suffered by Indigenous women married to non-Status Indians. ERIW faced strong resistance from male leaders in First Nations communities.

  122. July 24, 1967


    De Gaulle Incites Separatists

    French president Charles De Gaulle boosted Québec's separatist movement with a speech in Montréal in which he declared "Vive le Québec libre!"

  123. November 19, 1967


    Mouvement Souveraineté-Association Formed

    René Lévesque formed the Mouvement Souveraineté-Association to promote sovereignty in Québec. Levesque published the organization's manifesto, Option Québec, the following year.

  124. February 22, 1968

    Communication and Transportation 

    Radio Québec Formed

    Radio Québec was created by the Government of Quebec.

  125. August 28, 1968

    Sports and Culture 

    Premiere of Les Belles-Sœurs

    The Théâtre du Rideau Vert premiered Michel Tremblay's Les Belles-Sœurs, becoming the first play to use Québec joual instead of Parisian French.

  126. October 02, 1968


    Bertrand Becomes Premier

    Jean-Jacques Bertrand, leader of the Union Nationale, became Québec''s 25th premier.

  127. August 15, 1969


    Paul Déjean is Expelled from Haiti

    Community leader, secular priest, anti-racism activist and political writer Paul Déjean was expelled from Haiti by the government of dictator François Duvalier. He eventually settled in Montreal, where he became of the great leaders of the entire Haitian diaspora.

  128. April 29, 1970

    Robert Bourassa


    Québec Liberals Defeat Union Nationale

    Robert Bourassa's Liberals defeated the governing Union Nationale in the Québec provincial election.

  129. October 06, 1970


    FLQ Issues Demands

    The FLQ began sending ransom notes to radio station CKAC, threatening James Cross' life if their demands were not met. Several Québec newspapers published the FLQ manifesto the same day, though none of the ransom demands were met.

  130. October 10, 1970


    Pierre Laporte Kidnapped

    Québec labour minister Pierre Laporte was kidnapped in the Montréal suburb of St Hubert by FLQ terrorists.

  131. November 07, 1970

    Communication and Transportation 

    Pierre-Laporte Bridge Opens

    The Pierre- Laporte Bridge, over the St Lawrence River, was opened. The bridge originally was to be named the Frontenac Bridge, but it was changed to honour Laporte, Québec minister of labour and immigration, following his murder during the October Crisis.

  132. April 05, 1971

    Resources and Environment 

    First CANDU

    Gentilly nuclear power plant opened in Québec, the world's first nuclear plant with a reactor fuelled by natural uranium and cooled by ordinary water (the CANDU system).

  133. May 04, 1971


    Landslide at Saguenay

    During the night, the worst landslide in Québec's history destroyed 40 houses in the small city of Saint-Jean-Vianney, Saguenay. There were 31 deaths and hundreds were left homeless.

  134. October 27, 1971

    Presse, La, Strike

    Communication and Transportation 

    La Presse Strike

    Strikers forced La Presse to close down. Two days later, the unions defied a municipal ban to organize a huge march in solidarity with the newspaper workers. More than 12 000 people clashed with 100 Montréal policemen.

  135. May 29, 1972

    Fish, Marine

    Resources and Environment 

    Ban on Fishing off Gaspé

    Québec banned fishing off the Gaspé Peninsula due to low fish stocks.

  136. September 04, 1972

    Sports and Culture 

    Skylight Caper (Montreal Art Heist)

    In the early morning hours of 4 September 1972, three armed individuals accessed the Montreal Museum of Fine Arts through a skylight and stole 18 paintings, as well as 39 figurines and pieces of jewelry. The so-called Skylight Caper was the most valuable theft in Canadian history. Valued at $2 million in 1972, the artworks were estimated to be worth $20 million in 1992, although a rare Rembrandt landscape alone was estimated to be worth $20 million in 2017.

  137. September 17, 1972

    Sports and Culture 

    Cartier-Brébeuf Site Opens

    Cartier-Brébeuf National Historical Site opened in Québec City.

  138. April 28, 1973

    Olympic Stadium

    Sports and Culture 

    Construction Begins on Montreal’s Olympic Stadium

    Montreal’s Olympic Stadium is the largest covered amphitheatre and sports venue in Quebec and is also the largest stadium in Canada. Construction began in 1973, based on designs from renowned French architect Roger Taillibert.

  139. January 01, 1974

    Indigenous Peoples 

    Quebec Native Women Inc. Established

    Québec Native Women Inc. (QNW) was founded. The bilingual QNW represents Indigenous women from Quebec. Working to achieve equal rights for all Aboriginal women, the QNW promotes issues such as non-violence and justice. It is a member organization of the Native Women’s Association of Canada.

  140. September 11, 1975


    First Policewoman (Qué)

    Nicole Juteau became the first policewoman in Québec. She worked in Shawinigan, had to learn to drive and became a night-time patrol officer.

  141. June 20, 1976

    Communication and Transportation 

    Pilots and Air-traffic Strike

    Pilots and air-traffic controllers went on strike over bilingualism at Québec airports.

  142. January 31, 1978

    Indigenous Peoples 

    Northeastern Québec Agreement

    The Northeastern Québec Agreement was settled. The Agreement was an amendment to the James Bay and Northern Québec Agreement, incorporating the Naskapi of Northern Québec. The Naskapi received funds, lands and rights equal to those obtained by the Cree and Inuit peoples who had signed the original agreement in 1975.

  143. April 27, 1978


    Côté Appointed Lieutenant-Governor

    The Honourable Jean-Pierre Côté was appointed Québec''s 23rd lieutenant-governor, serving until 28 March 1984.

  144. January 01, 1979


    Maternity Leave in Québec

    Québec''s maternity leave policy came into effect. It granted women 18 weeks of unpaid maternity leave, with the guarantee that their jobs would be held for them.

  145. January 09, 1979

    NHL Hockey

    Sports and Culture 

    NHL Merges with WHA

    The NHL Players' Association ratified the merger of the National Hockey League and the World Hockey Association. Former WHA teams Québec, Winnipeg, Edmonton and Hartford joined the NHL.

  146. July 19, 1979

    Indigenous Peoples 

    “Indian Women’s March” Protests the Indian Act

    Twenty-eight women from the Tobique First Nation’s women’s group organized a 160 km walk from the Oka Reserve in Québec to Ottawa. They aimed to bring national attention to gender discrimination in the Indian Act.

  147. November 01, 1979


    PQ White Paper

    The Parti Québécois released its White Paper on Sovereignty Association, titled Québec-Canada: A New Deal. The paper outlined the party''s plans for an upcoming sovereignty referendum.

  148. December 31, 1979


    Fire at Le Club Opemiska

    Arsonists set fire to Le Club Opemiska in Chapais, Qué, during a New Year's Eve party, killing 42.

  149. January 01, 1980

    Université de Montréal

    Sports and Culture 

    Ernest Cormier Dies

    Architect and engineer Ernest Cormier, whose main building of the Université de Montréal is recognized as the first modern building in Québec, died at Montréal.

  150. January 09, 1980


    "Beige Paper" Released in Québec

    Québec''s Liberal Party released its “Beige Paper,” a proposal outlining constitutional reforms for a renewed federation.

  151. May 20, 1980


    Québec Referendum

    The first of two Quebec referendums is held. Initiated by the Parti Québécois, it asks Quebec voters whether or not to approve negotiations leading to the province’s sovereignty. The “No” side wins with 60 per cent support. After the failure of two constitutional accords, a second vote in 1995 narrowly approves of the province remaining in Canada, with 50.58 per cent support. In 2006, the federal government recognizes that the Québécois form a “nation” within a united Canada.

  152. October 09, 1980


    Duchaîne Report Released

    The Duchaîne Report was officially released, concluding that politicians did not provoke or prolong the October Crisis in Québec.

  153. March 06, 1981


    Keable Report Released

    The Keable Report, commissioned by the government of Québec to look into police wrongdoing following the October Crisis, presented its findings. Jean Keable claimed that there had been undue interference by the police.

  154. June 12, 1981

    Soldier and Child


    RCMP Charged in October Crisis

    Seventeen present or past members of the RCMP were charged with a total of 44 offences following the Keable Report. The offences were connected to illegal operations conducted after the October Crisis.

  155. May 23, 1982

    Le Frère André


    Brother André is Beatified by Pope John Paul II

    A lay brother of the Congregation of the Holy Cross, Brother André was widely regarded as a miracle worker, although he attributed his miracles to Saint Joseph, to whom he was devoted. Saint Joseph's Oratory was built on the site of Brother André’s original chapel. In 1982, Brother André was beatified by Pope John Paul II, who prayed at Brother André’s tomb in the basilica in 1984 during his visit to Montreal. Brother André was canonized in 2010, making him Saint André, the first male Catholic saint born in Canada.

  156. June 09, 1983

    Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms


    Bill 101 Violates Charter

    The Québec Court of Appeal ruled that Bill 101, Québec's language law, violated the Charter of Rights and Freedoms.

  157. January 01, 1984

    Iles de Mingan

    Resources and Environment 

    ​Mingan Archipelago National Park Reserve Established

    Mingan Archipelago National Park Reserve was established. The park reserve, which consists of some 40 small limestone islands, extends for 155 km between the communities of Longue-Pointe and Aguanish, QC, along the north shore of the Gulf of St. Lawrence.

  158. March 28, 1984


    Lamontagne Appointed Lieutenant-Governor

    The Honourable Gilles Lamontagne was appointed Québec''s 24th lieutenant-governor, serving until 9 August 1990.

  159. May 08, 1984


    Shooting Spree at the National Assembly

    Former soldier Denis Lortie went on a shooting spree at the National Assembly in Québec, killing 3 and injuring 13.

  160. June 20, 1984

    Sports and Culture 

    National Order of Québec Created

    The National Order of Québec was created.

  161. October 03, 1985


    Johnson Becomes Premier

    Pierre Marc Johnson, leader of the Parti Québécois, became Quebec's 28th premier.

  162. March 18, 1986


    Death of Priest and Activist Karl Lévêque

    Karl Lévêque was born in Haiti, but did his post-secondary studies in theology and became a Jesuit priest in Quebec. He fought the various forms of discrimination experienced by many members of the Haitian community in Montreal and was one of Montreal’s greatest community activists.

  163. March 19, 1988

    Jacques Parizeau, politician


    Parizeau New PQ Leader

    Jacques Parizeau became leader of the Parti Québécois. He told party members that their primary goal must be independence for Québec.

  164. August 08, 1988

    Sports and Culture 

    Death of Félix Leclerc

    Singer-songwriter and poet Félix Leclerc, who was a major influence on the Québec chanson, died at Île d'Orléans, Qué.

  165. March 13, 1989


    Solar Storm in Québec

    A solar magnetic storm caused a province-wide blackout in Québec that lasted nine hours.

  166. July 11, 1990

    Oka Confrontation

    Indigenous Peoples 

    Oka Standoff

    A standoff began at Oka, Québec, when police attempted to storm a barricade erected by the Mohawk to block the expansion of a golf course onto land claimed by the Mohawk. The protesters surrendered to soldiers on September 26, after a 2-month-long siege.

  167. August 09, 1990


    Asselin Appointed Lieutenant-Governor

    The Honourable Martial Asselin was appointed Québec''s 25th lieutenant-governor, serving until 12 September 1996.

  168. August 17, 1990

    Indigenous Peoples 

    Canadian Forces Called in at Oka

    Québec premier Robert Bourassa asked that the Canadian Forces replace the Sûreté du Québec (SQ) to resolve the Oka Crisis, a standoff by the Mohawk of the Kanesatake Reserve who had set up a blockade to protest the expansion of a golf course across land they claimed. Corporal Marcel Lemay, of the SQ, was killed on July 11 when the SQ stormed the blockade. The standoff ended peaceably 78 days after it began.

  169. June 20, 1991

    Robert Bourassa


    Bill 150 Passed

    Robert Bourassa's government passes Bill 150, also known as an Act respecting the process for determining the political and constitutional future of Québec.

  170. January 06, 1992


    Nancy B.

    The Québec Superior Court gave paralysed patient Nancy B. the right to be disconnected from a respirator, which would result in her death.

  171. February 20, 1992

    Sports and Culture 

    Women 's Short-Track Speed Skaters Win Olympic Gold

    The women's short-track speed skating relay team consisting of Angela Cutrone, Sylvie Daigle, Nathalie Lambert and Annie Perreault won the Olympic gold medal in the 3,000 m race at Albertville. Initially thought to be a contest between Canada and China, a fall by a Chinese skater in the final qualifying round clinched the competition for the women from Québec, who easily beat their nearest competitor, the US, by 1.23 seconds.

  172. January 01, 1994


    Québec Civil Code

    The Civil Code of Québec, the legal text defining civil laws in the province, came into effect.

  173. January 11, 1994


    Johnson (JR) Becomes Premier

    Daniel Johnson Jr, leader of the Liberal Party, became Québec''s 30th premier.

  174. September 12, 1994

    Jacques Parizeau, politician


    PQ Victory in Québec

    The Parti Québécois won an overall majority in the Québec legislature. Jacques Parizeau was sworn in as premier on 26 September.

  175. May 25, 1995

    Sports and Culture 

    Nordiques Sold

    The Québec Nordiques were sold to Comsat Corporation for US $75 millions. The new team was moved to Denver, Colorado, and renamed the Avalanche. The new team won the Stanley Cup the following year.

  176. October 24, 1995

    Indigenous Peoples 

    James Bay Cree Referendum

    The James Bay Cree held a referendum to decide if their territory should remain a part of Canada should Québec vote to separate in its own forthcoming referendum. With a voter turnout of 77 per cent, 96.3 per cent voted in favour of staying with Canada. The vote was a political statement to the Government of Québec, asserting sovereignty over traditional Cree lands that had been appropriated without consent in 1898 and 1912, and formalizing opposition to Québec separatism.

  177. October 30, 1995


    Second Sovereignty Referendum

    Québec held its second sovereignty referendum in 15 years. The “"no"” side won, with a 50.6 per cent majority, in a vote that saw 93.2 per cent of the population participating. In a public speech a shocked Premier Jacques Parizeau blamed the result on money and ethnic voters, and resigned the next day.

  178. June 24, 1996


    Québec City Riot

    An estimated 2000 people rioted in Québec City after a rock concert, looting shops and damaging the National Assembly building.

  179. July 19, 1996

    Saguenay Flood


    Saguenay Flooding

    Flooding caused by torrential rains killed 10 people, destroyed 22 488 homes and left thousands homeless in the Saguenay region of Québec. An inquiry later reported that the region's system of dams was poorly maintained.

  180. July 20, 1996


    Floods Hit Québec

    Devastating floods hit the Charlevoix and Lower North Shore regions of Québec after 277 mm of rain fell in a short time onto already saturated earth. The floods killed 7, left 10 000 homeless and destroyed the area's industry.

  181. December 14, 1996

    Sports and Culture 

    Death of Gaston Miron

    Poet Gaston Miron died at Montreal. The first publication of his collection L'homme rapaillé (1970) was the first of 7 editions, as he refined his craft. The official version was completed just before his death. The internationally acclaimed book was a stepping stone for Québec poetry.

  182. January 20, 1997

    Sports and Culture 

    Jacques Brault wins Prix Gilles-Corbeil

    One of Québec's major poets, Jacques Brault, won the Prix Gilles-Corbeil for his body of work.

  183. January 30, 1997


    Thibault Appointed Lieutenant-Governor

    The Honourable Lise Thibault was appointed Québec''s 27th lieutenant-governor, serving until 7 June 2007.

  184. October 01, 1997


    Referendum Law Struck Down

    The Supreme Court of Canada struck down Québec's controversial law limiting spending on referenda.

  185. October 13, 1997


    Worst Bus Crash in Canada

    A bus crashed into a ravine near Saint-Joseph-de-la-Rive, Québec, killing 43 people, leaving only 5 survivors. It was the worst crash in Canadian history.

  186. November 18, 1997

    Sports and Culture 

    Constitution Act Amended

    Parliament voted to amend the 1982 Constitution Act in order to allow Québec to replace its religion-based school system with one drawn along linguistic lines.

  187. January 04, 1998

    Ice Storm, Montréal


    Ice Storm Hits East

    A severe winter ice storm raged across eastern Canada causing an estimated $2 billion damage and leaving 25 dead and 3 million without electric power.

  188. February 16, 1998


    Unilateral Secession Dispute

    The Supreme Court of Canada began to hear arguments on whether unilateral secession by Québec would be legal.

  189. March 02, 1998


    Daniel Johnson Resigns

    Québec Liberal leader Daniel Johnson resigned.

  190. August 20, 1998


    Supreme Court Rules on Separation

    The Supreme Court of Canada ruled that Québec could not secede from Canada without first negotiating the terms of secession with the federal government and the other provinces.

  191. March 16, 1999

    Gélinas, Gratien

    Sports and Culture 

    Gratien Gélinas Dies

    Gratien Gélinas, whose many activities as actor, director and playwright laid the base for contemporary Québec theatre, died at Montréal.

  192. May 27, 1999

    Payette, Julie

    Communication and Transportation 

    Julie Payette in Space

    Canadian astronaut Julie Payette took part in a space shuttle mission. She and a co-worker repaired faulty parts in the Russian space station Zarya's battery pack.

  193. September 06, 1999

    Communication and Transportation 

    Death of René Lecavalier

    Radio-Canada's “voice of hockey” René Lecavalier died at Montreal. From 1952 to 1985, he was the commentator for “La Soirée du hockey” at the Montréal Forum. He bid adieu to his beloved Forum when it closed 11 Mar 11, 1999.

  194. September 15, 1999


    Church Refuses to Apologize

    Québec's Roman Catholic Church refused to apologize to 3,000 orphans who claimed that they were sexually and physically abused in church-run institutions. The children had been declared mentally ill to qualify for federal subsidies.

  195. October 06, 1999


    Federalism Conference

    The first international conference on federalism was held in Mont-Tremblant, Qué. More than 600 delegates from 25 nations attended. Lucien Bouchard upstaged the conference with his diatribe against Canadian federalism.

  196. November 30, 1999

    Lake Superior

    Resources and Environment 

    Freshwater Protest

    BC, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba and Québec rejected a national accord that would have prohibited the export of fresh water.

  197. March 15, 2000


    House Passes Clarity Bill

    The House of Commons passed its "clarity bill," setting guidelines for a referendum on secession of Québec and stating that the referendum question must be clearly worded and supported by a clear majority.

  198. June 30, 2001


    Duplessis Orphans

    Some 1500 Duplessis Orphans received an apology and a “fault-free” offer of compensation. Each received a lump sum payment of $10 000 and an additional $1000 for each year spent in an asylum, roughly $25 000 per person.

  199. April 14, 2003

    Jean Charest


    Charest Wins Election

    Jean Charest, leader of the Québec Liberal party, defeated the Parti Québécois led by Bernard Landry. He was sworn in as premier 29 April.

  200. March 19, 2004

    Rainbow graffiti Montreal


    Same-Sex Marriage Legalized

    A Court of Appeal ruling legalized same-sex marriage in Québec.

  201. July 01, 2004

    Sports and Culture 

    Montreal Jazz Festival Named World’s Largest

    The Festival International de Jazz de Montréal (FIJM), founded by Alain Simard and André Ménard in 1980, set the Guinness World Record as the world’s largest jazz festival. (See also Music Festivals.)

  202. September 07, 2004


    Gomery Commission Begins Hearings

    The Gomery Commission, appointed by PM Paul Martin, began public hearings into the misuse of funds during the federal sponsorship program. Justice John Gomery of the Superior Court of Québec was the sole commissioner.

  203. March 16, 2005

    People  Sports and Culture 

    Student Protest in Québec

    One of the biggest protests ever, involving 80,000 students, took place in downtown Montréal. At issue was a $103 million cut to bursary funds by the government. As many as 200,000 college and university students from nearly every region went on strike for six weeks.

  204. March 26, 2005

    Communication and Transportation 

    Death of Gérard Filion

    Gérard Filion, the former Le Devoir publisher who played an influential role in Québec's Quiet Revolution and helped redefine French Canadian nationalism, died in Saint-Bruno-de-Montarville, QC.

  205. November 01, 2005


    Gomery Commission Released

    The Commission of Inquiry into the Sponsorship Program and Advertising Activities, which investigated the misuse of funds by the federal sponsorship program, was released. According to the report, the Québec wing of the federal Liberal Party received illegal kickbacks from individuals involved in the sponsorship program, designed to promote federalism in Québec by advertising at community, cultural, and sporting events in the wake of the 1995 Québec referendum.

  206. July 23, 2006

    Sports and Culture 

    Death of Jean-Paul Desbiens

    Jean-Paul Desbiens, whose pseudonym was Frère Untel, died at Château-Richer, Qué. A Marist Brother, he published Les insolences du Frère Untel(1960), in which he denounced Québec taboos, particularly the education system. His book opened the door to the Quiet Revolution and heralded a new era in Québec.

  207. March 26, 2007

    Jean Charest


    Quebec Liberals Win Election

    Jean Charest''s Liberal Party won the provincial election and formed the first minority government in Québec in 130 years. The ADQ unseated the Parti Québécois as the official opposition, and for the first time in 30 years the PQ formed neither the government nor the opposition.

  208. April 30, 2007

    Indigenous Peoples  Sports and Culture 

    Death of Mitiarjuk Nappaaluk

    Inuk author Mitiarjuk Nappaaluk died in Kangiqsujuaq, Québec. Nappaaluk is best remembered for her novel Sanaaq, the first novel written in Inuktitut syllabics. Published in 1987, Sanaaq follows the life of a young woman who leads a traditional life in Inuvik (northern Québec) in the 1920s. A French translation was published in 2002, and an English translation in 2014.

  209. June 07, 2007


    Duchesne Appointed Lieutenant-Governor

    The Honourable Pierre Duchesne was appointed Québec''s 28th lieutenant-governor.

  210. July 03, 2007

    Sports and Culture 

    Commemorative Fountain in Québec

    The Simons family offered the Tourny Fountain to Québec City for the 400th anniversary celebrations. One of 6 fountains made in the second half of the 19th century to grace opposite ends of Allées de Tourny in Bordeaux, France, the fountain was dismantled and reconstructed in Québec City.

  211. November 21, 2007

    Indigenous Peoples  People 

    Ouellet Apology

    In an open letter to Québec newspapers, Cardinal Marc Ouellet issued an apology for errors committed by the Roman Catholic Church, asking Quebeckers to forgive the institution for its former attitudes toward anti-Semitism and racism, indifference to First Nations, and discrimination against homosexuals and women.

  212. December 31, 2007

    Sports and Culture 

    400th Anniversary Celebrations (Que)

    An outdoor show outside of Québec City involving more than 400 performers kicked off celebrations of the 400th anniversary of the city's founding.

  213. December 08, 2008

    Jean Charest


    Québec Liberals Win Majority

    Jean Charest''s Liberal party won a majority in Québec, making him the first Québec premier since Maurice Duplessis to win three successive mandates in the province.

  214. June 23, 2010

    Ottawa, Satellite Image


    Earthquake Near Ottawa

    An earthquake measuring 5.0 on the Richter Scale hit 60 km north of Ottawa, causing tremors that shook central Ontario and part of Québec. Though no lives were lost and only minimal damage occurred, the quake was unique in that it was felt as far away as New York.

  215. April 30, 2011

    Richelieu River


    Flooding of the Montérégie Region of Québec

    Major flooding began in the Montérégie region as rapid snowmelt and heavy rains caused water levels to rise in Lake Champlain and the Richelieu River. All bordering municipalities would be affected, with nearly 3000 homes and much arable land flooded. In early May, Premier Jean Charest requested assistance from the Canadian Forces.

  216. January 20, 2013

    Communication and Transportation 

    Death of Richard Garneau

    Richard Garneau, Québec sports journalist and writer, died in Montréal, QC. A veteran sports reporter in Québec, Garneau was best-known for his Olympic coverage, having reported 23 Olympic Games.

  217. February 05, 2013

    Resources and Environment 

    Small Hydropower Plant Program in Québec Ends

    The PQ government under Pauline Marois announced the end of the Small Hydropower Plant Program created by the former Liberal government.

  218. February 24, 2013

    Sports and Culture 

    Québec films nominated for Oscars

    Feature length film Rebel by Kim Nguyen and short Henry by Yan England garnered Oscar nominations for Best Foreign Language Film and Best Short Film, respectively.

  219. February 24, 2013

    Sports and Culture 

    Opening of the 2013 Higher Education Summit in Québec

    Following the large student demonstrations of 2012, the Québec government introduced a two day summit on higher education in Québec to examine key issues such as tuition fees and funding.

  220. March 06, 2013

    Sports and Culture 

    Mikaël Kingsbury named FIS World Champion in Moguls

    Québec freestyle skier Mikaël Kingsbury won the World Championship in Moguls in Voss, Norway.

  221. March 17, 2013


    Philippe Couillard elected leader of the Québec Liberal Party

    Philippe Couillard was elected leader of the Québec Liberal Party with 58.5 per cent of the vote.

  222. July 06, 2013

    Lac-Mégantic derailment


    Lac-Mégantic Oil Train Explosion

    A runaway train carrying crude oil exploded in Lac-Mégantic, Québec, killing at least 47 people. Approximately 2,000 were evacuated after explosions and subsequent fires destroyed the centre of town.

  223. July 09, 2013

    Sports and Culture 

    Death of Gaétan Soucy

    Gaétan Soucy, Québécois author of four novels, including The Little Girl Who Was Too Fond of Matches, which has been translated into 18 languages, died in Montréal, QC.

  224. April 07, 2014


    Parti Québécois Defeated

    The Québec Liberal Party lead by Philippe Couillard defeated the minority Parti Québécois government in early elections called by Premier Pauline Marois. The péquistes called the election in a bid to win a majority government and pass the Québec Values Charter. The Liberal Party won a majority of seats (70) in the National Assembly, reducing the Parti Québécois to 30. Marois resigned as party leader the night of the election.

  225. May 13, 2014

    Lac-Mégantic derailment


    Charges Laid in Lac-Mégantic Oil Train Explosion

    Three employees of the Montreal, Maine and Atlantic Railway were charged with criminal negligence in the 6 July 2013 oil train crash that killed 47 people in the town of Lac-MéganticQuebec. An investigation into the disaster determined, among other causes, that the handbrakes on the train were insufficient, causing the train to slide down a sloped length of track, derail and explode in downtown Lac-Mégantic. Following a trial, jurors acquitted the three former employees on 19 January 2018.

  226. May 24, 2014

    Xavier Dolan, 2009.

    Sports and Culture 

    Xavier Dolan Wins the Jury Prize at the Cannes Film Festival

    Xavier Dolan’s Mommy tied with Jean-Luc Godard’s Goodbye to Language for the Jury Prize at the Cannes Film Festival.

  227. July 03, 2014

    Sports and Culture 

    First Canadian Singles Player at Grand Slam Final

    Eugenie Bouchard of Westmount, QC, became the first Canadian women's singles tennis player to reach a Grand Slam final after defeating Romania's Simona Halep at Wimbledon.

  228. October 06, 2014

    Communication and Transportation  Sports and Culture 

    Last Major Business Deal in Canadian Print?

    Postmedia announced its purchase of 175 English-language publications from Quebecor Media Inc., including the Sun chain of dailies, for $316 million. Reporting on the deal, Maclean's speculated that it was "likely the last-ever blockbuster deal in Canadian print."

  229. December 21, 2014

    Michelle Tisseyre

    Communication and Transportation 

    Death of Michelle Tisseyre

    Mary Jane Michelle Tisseyre (née Ahern), television host, journalist and translator died in Montréal, QC. After 30 years as a journalist and television host, she embraced a new career as a translator at Les Éditions Pierre Tisseyre. In 1975, she received the Governor General’s Literary Award for the translation of Winter by Morley Callaghan. She was also an Officer of the Order of Canada.

  230. April 06, 2015

    Montreal Canadiens

    Sports and Culture 

    Death of Dollard St-Laurent

    Former Montréal Canadiens defenceman Dollard St-Laurent died in Belœil, QC, at age 85. The Verdun, QC, native won five Stanley Cups in his time with the Canadiens during the 1950s, and one with the Chicago Blackhawks in 1961.

  231. June 01, 2015

    Jacques Parizeau, politician


    Death of Jacques Parizeau

    Jacques Parizeau, who nearly led Québec to sovereignty in the 1995 referendum as premier and head of the Parti Québécois, died at age 84 in Montréal. An economist by training, Parizeau was a key figure in the Quiet Revolution of the 1960s, helping to establish public institutions such as the Québec Pension Plan and the Caisse de dépôt et placement du Québec.

  232. June 22, 2015

    Lac-Mégantic derailment


    More Charges Laid in Lac-Mégantic Oil Train Explosion

    The Montreal, Maine and Atlantic Railway and six former employees of the railway were charged under the Railway Safety Act and Fisheries Act for their role in the 6 July 2013 oil train crash that killed 47 people in the town of Lac-MéganticQuebec. On 5 February 2018, the Montreal, Maine and Atlantic Railway pleaded guilty to violating the Fisheries Act and was fined $1 million. The six former employees pleaded guilty to violating the Railway Safety Act. Five of the former employees were fined $50,000 each. The sixth former employee received a conditional sentence of six months in prison, to be served in the community.

  233. August 14, 2015

    Sports and Culture 

    Rivard Sets World Record at Parapan Am Games

    Swimmer Aurélie Rivard, of St-Jean-sur-Richelieu, QC, set a world record in the 100-metre freestyle S10 at the Parapan American Games in Toronto, completing the race in 59.17 seconds. In total, Rivard won seven medals at the 2015 Games, six of them gold, and set several additional Americas and Parapan Am records.

  234. October 22, 2015

    Gilles Duceppe, politician


    Duceppe Resigns as Leader of the Bloc Québécois

    Gilles Duceppe stepped down as leader of the Bloc Québécois in the wake of the October 2015 federal election. Although the Bloc won 10 seats more than doubling its count from the 2011 election, in which the party was devastated by the NDP's "orange wave" in Québec Duceppe lost in his own riding and the party emerged two seats short of official party status in the House of Commons. This was Duceppe's second resignation from the Bloc's leadership after stepping down in 2011 and returning in 2015.

  235. January 05, 2016


    Death of Jean-Paul L'Allier

    Jean-Paul L'Allier, who served as a Québec's minister of Communications during the October Crisis and later as mayor of Québec City from 1989 to 2005, died in Québec City at age 77.

  236. January 14, 2016

    Sports and Culture 

    Death of René Angélil

    René Angélil, Céline Dion's husband and manager, died in Las Vegas, Nevada after a long battle with cancer. He was 73. Angélil's career in the music business began in the early 1960s as a member of the band Les Baronets, who achieved some success in Québec with their French covers of Beatles songs. Angélil later moved into talent management. In 1981, he discovered Céline Dion, then aged 12, and resolved to make her a star. Over time, the two developed a romantic relationship, and they married in 1994. Angélil won a number of awards over the course of his career and was appointed a Member of the Order of Canada in 2012.

  237. March 02, 2016


    Death of Father Benoît Lacroix

    Father Benoît Lacroix, a leading religious and intellectual figure in Québec whose career spanned nearly 75 years, died in Montréal at age 100. "Père Lacroix" was a theologian, philosopher, medievalist, journalist and teacher who published some 50 books on science and religion. The popular priest was an Officer of the Order of Canada and the National Order of Québec.

  238. March 06, 2016


    Death of D.G. Jones

    Poet and translator Douglas Gordon (D.G.) Jones died in North Hatley, Québec, at age 87. A native of Bancroft, Ontario, Jones published influential volumes of poetry, translations and literary criticism from the 1950s into the 21st century, and spent many years teaching at the Université de Sherbrooke. A winner of two Governor General’s Awards and an Officer of the Order of Canada, he is credited with having greatly advanced the art of translation between French and English in Canada.

  239. March 20, 2016

    Léa Pool

    Sports and Culture 

    Léa Pool Wins Big at the Gala du cinéma québécois

    Québec director Léa Pool's film La passion d'Augustine won six awards at the Gala du cinéma québécois (formerly the Jutra Awards), including Best Film, Best Director, Best Lead Actress and Best Supporting Actress. Pool was the first woman to win Best Film since the awards were founded in 1999.

  240. March 20, 2016

    Sports and Culture 

    François Dompierre Wins Prix Hommage at the Gala du cinéma québécois

    Musician, composer and conductor François Dompierre was honoured with the Prix Hommage at the Gala du cinéma québécois (formerly the Jutra Awards) for his distinguished career composing music for Québec films.

  241. March 24, 2016

    Marie-Claire Kirkland-Casgrain, 1961.


    Death of Claire Kirkland-Casgrain

    Claire Kirkland-Casgrain, the first woman elected to Québec’s National Assembly, died at age 91. Kirkland-Casgrain left her mark on the province’s political history in 1964 by spearheading the passage of Bill 16, which improved the legal status of married women. For more than 12 years, she was the only woman to sit as a member of the National Assembly among some 100 male colleagues. In 1985, she was named a Knight of the National Order of Québec, and in 1992, she was made a Member of the Order of Canada.

  242. April 07, 2016


    Death of Marcel Dubé

    Québec playwright Marcel Dubé, who also wrote for TV and radio, died in Montréal. In addition to his literary career, Dubé held several distinguished positions related to the promotion of the French language, serving as the first secretary of the Conseil de la langue française from 1977 to 1979.

  243. April 23, 2016


    Death of Madeleine Sherwood

    Montréal-born actor Madeleine Sherwood died in Saint-Hippolyte, Québec, at age 93. Sherwood had a long career in the United States, performing in Broadway shows, plays by Arthur Miller and Tennessee Williams, and the 1960s TV series The Flying Nun. A civil rights activist, she was blacklisted for a time in the 1950s, during the McCarthy era, and was arrested for participating in a Freedom Walk in Alabama in 1963. She returned to Canada later in life.

  244. May 02, 2016


    Pierre Karl Péladeau Steps Down

    Citing family reasons, Pierre Karl Péladeau announced his resignation as leader of the Parti Québécois, leader of the official opposition and Member of Québec’s National Assembly for the riding of Saint-Jérôme.

  245. May 22, 2016

    Xavier Dolan, 2009.

    Sports and Culture 

    Xavier Dolan Wins Grand Prix at Cannes

    Montréal-born filmmaker Xavier Dolan received the Cannes Film Festival’s Grand Prix and its Prize of the Ecumenical Jury for his sixth feature film, Juste la fin du monde (It’s Only the End of the World, 2016). It was the first Canadian film to do so since Atom Egoyan’s The Sweet Hereafter (1997). Juste la fin du monde was considered a controversial winner of the Grand Prix, the festival’s second-place award, since it received largely negative reviews from critics.

  246. June 14, 2016


    Death of Gilles Lamontagne

    Former Québec City mayor and federal Member of Parliament Gilles Lamontagne died in Montréal at age 97. Lamontagne served with the Royal Canadian Air Force during the Second World War and survived two years as a prisoner of war after his plane was shot down over the Netherlands. In addition to his tenure as mayor of Québec City from 1965 to 1977, his distinguished political career included positions as defence minister in Pierre Trudeau’s Liberal government and as lieutenant-governor of Québec. He was named an Officer of the Order of Canada in 1990.

  247. June 21, 2016

    Sports and Culture 

    Death of Pierre Lalonde

    Beloved Québec crooner and television personality Pierre Lalonde died in Montréal at age 75. Lalonde began his singing career at age four and started releasing music in the early 1960s. Having mastered English during his studies in the United States as a teen, he achieved success in Canada and across the border, where he performed under the name Peter Martin. In 2011, he was awarded the Québec National Assembly’s Medal of Honour.

  248. September 09, 2016

    Sports and Culture 

    Lakatos Wins Gold at Rio Paralympics

    Wheelchair racer Brent Lakatos of Montréal, Québec, won gold in the 100 m event at the 2016 Paralympic Summer Games in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. He went on to reach the podium in each of the three additional events in which he competed, earning a silver and two bronze medals.

  249. September 15, 2016

    Sports and Culture 

    Rivard Wins Fourth Medal at Rio, Sets World Record

    Swimmer Aurélie Rivard of Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, Québec, won her third gold — and fourth medal — of the 2016 Paralympic Summer Games in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Her 400-metre freestyle swim broke the world record with a time of 4:29.96.

  250. November 07, 2016

    Leonard Cohen performs in Florence


    Death of Leonard Cohen

    Poet, novelist, singer and songwriter Leonard Cohen died in Los Angeles, California, at age 82. Born in Westmount, Québec, Cohen was one of the most iconic Canadian artists of the 20th century. A sage, mystic, bohemian and romantic, he built an acclaimed body of literary work and a revered career in pop music.

  251. December 21, 2016


    Indigenous Peoples 

    Québec Announces Inquiry into Treatment of Indigenous People

    After months of public pressure led by Indigenous leaders, Québec premier Philippe Couillard announced that the province would undertake a public inquiry into systemic discrimination toward Indigenous people. Calls for the inquiry grew in the wake of an October 2015 Radio-Canada investigation into the mistreatment and abuse of Indigenous women by police officers in Val-d’Or.

  252. January 21, 2017

    Montreal Convention Centre


    Death of Victor Prus

    Polish-born architect Victor Prus died in Montréal, Québec, at age 99. Prus immigrated to Canada in 1952, having served with the Polish forces and the Royal Air Force during the Second World War. He went on to have an award-winning career in this country, designing such notable structures as Montréal’s Palais des congrès (Convention Centre), three of the city’s metro stations and the Centaur Theatre.

  253. January 29, 2017


    Québec City Mosque Shooting

    Six Muslim men were killed and five others critically injured in a shooting rampage at a mosque of the Centre Culturel Islamique in Québec City. Alexandre Bissonnette, 27, was charged with six counts of first-degree murder and five counts of attempted murder. Media reports subsequently described Bissonnette as recently radicalized to far-right political ideologies. (See also Terrorism and Canada.)

  254. March 15, 2017


    Death of Laurent Laplante

    Journalist Laurent Laplante, who wrote for newspapers such as Le Devoir and Le Soleil, died of pancreatic cancer at the age of 83. (see Newspapers in Canada and Newspapers in Canada: 1900-1990s)

  255. March 28, 2017

    Janine Sutto


    Death of Janine Sutto

    Prolific Québecoise actor Janine Sutto died in Montréal, Québec, at age 95. An autodidact, she brilliantly personified countless roles in all genres of theatre, radio and television. Sutto pursued her career for more than seven decades and acted in more than 150 productions, including Michel Tremblay’s Les Belles- sœurs and Marcel Dubé’s Florence.

  256. April 11, 2017


    Death of Dr. Mark Wainberg

    Montreal-born molecular biologist Dr. Mark Wainberg, a renowned HIV/AIDS researcher and activist, died at the age of 71. In 1989, Wainberg discovered that the antiviral drug 3TC slowed the replication of HIV in the body — a breakthrough in the development of antiretroviral therapy.

  257. June 03, 2017


    Death of Jacques Beaudry

    Internationally renowned conductor Jacques Beaudry, of Sorel, Québec, died at age 92. He made his debut on the CBC in 1955 and went on to conduct major symphonies and operas in North America, Europe and the USSR.

  258. July 13, 2017


    Julie Payette Named Governor General Designate

    Prime Minister Justin Trudeau announced that astronaut Julie Payette would become Canada’s 29th governor general, succeeding David Johnston. She was sworn in in the fall of 2017.

  259. July 27, 2017


    Death of Gilles Tremblay

    Composer and teacher Gilles Tremblay died in Montréal, Québec. Born in Arvida (now part of the city of Saguenay), Tremblay had an accomplished career that earned him, among other honours, the Prix de musique Calixa-Lavallée for the electroacoustic music he wrote for Expo 67’s Québec Pavilion. He was made an Officer of the National Order of Québec in 1991 and an Officer of the Order of Canada in 2012.

  260. August 11, 2017


    Death of Daisy Peterson Sweeney

    Teacher, pianist and organist Daisy Peterson Sweeney died in Montréal, Québec, at age 97. An accomplished musician in her own right, Daisy Peterson Sweeney is perhaps best known as the older sister, and early teacher, of celebrated jazz pianist Oscar Peterson. She also taught other notable Montréal jazz pianists, including Oliver Jones and Joe Sealey. Sweeney is equally remembered as a leader in Montréal’s Black community.

  261. September 13, 2017

    Indigenous Peoples 

    Montréal Changes Coat of Arms and Announces Amherst Street Renaming

    Montréal mayor Denis Coderre announced the addition of a white pine to the city’s coat of arms to recognize the contributions of Indigenous people over its history. The initiative was tied to the 10th anniversary of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. Coderre also announced that Amherst Street — named after British general Jeffrey Amherst — would be renamed. Amherst supported the genocide of Indigenous peoples, including the spreading of epidemics by distributing smallpox-carrying blankets.

  262. October 02, 2017


    ​Julie Payette Becomes Governor General

    Astronaut Julie Payette was installed as Canada’s 29th governor general, succeeding David Johnston.

  263. October 05, 2017

    Gas pipeline construction

    Resources and Environment 

    Energy East Pipeline Project Cancelled

    TransCanada announced that it had cancelled plans to build the Energy East pipeline, which would have carried crude oil from Alberta and Saskatchewan to refineries in Québec and New Brunswick. From there, oil would have been exported to other countries. The company cited changing market conditions and delays in assessments carried out by the National Energy Board as reasons for its decision. The project’s supporters, including premiers Rachel Notley and Brad Wall, expressed disappointment and criticized the federal government’s approach to the review process. Energy East’s opponents, including municipalities in Québec and Indigenous communities along the proposed path of the pipeline, hailed it as a victory.

  264. November 05, 2017

    Montréal at dawn


    Valérie Plante, 1st woman mayor of Montreal

    Voters elected community organizer and city councillor Valérie Plante as Montréal’s first woman mayor.

  265. June 16, 2019

    Law and Politics 

    Bill 21 is Passed by Quebec National Assembly

    Also called An Act respecting the laicity of the State, Bill 21’s purpose was to confirm Quebec’s secular status and to prohibit the wearing of religious symbols by civil service employees in positions of authority and by teachers in the public sector.

  266. September 28, 2020

    Indigenous Peoples 

    Joyce Echaquan Livestreams Hospital Staff’s Refusal to Treat Her before She Dies

    At a hospital in Joliette, Quebec, Joyce Echaquan, a 37-year-old Atikamekw woman and a mother of seven, died shortly after she livestreamed a nurse and an orderly refusing to tend to her as they made racist, derogatory comments about her. On 5 October, coroner Gehane Kamel reported that hospital staff failed to properly assess the heart palpitations Echaquan was experiencing and instead assumed she was suffering from opioid withdrawal. When Echaquan became distressed and agitated, hospital staff called her “theatrical” and strapped her to a bed. Kamel called the incident an “undeniable” example of systemic racism. A lawyer for Echaquan’s family planned to file a human rights complaint and a civil suit against the hospital.

  267. August 31, 2021

    North Atlantic Right Whale (Eubalaena glacialis)

    Resources and Environment 

    Right Whales Could Be Extinct by 2100, Study Finds

    A study published in the journal Oceanography concluded that right whales could be extinct by the end of the 21st century. Since 2015, warming waters had forced the whales into the Gulf of St. Lawrence, where they faced increased danger from shipping routes and fishing gear. The total population of North Atlantic right whales was estimated by the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration to be 368, including fewer than 100 breeding females.

  268. January 11, 2022


    Quebec Announces Plan to Tax Unvaccinated Adults

    Embed from Getty Images

    One day after Quebec’s public health chief resigned, Quebec premier François Legault announced that his government intended to impose a “significant” tax on the roughly 10 per cent of Quebecers who refused to get vaccinated against COVID-19. However, after preparing the bill, Legault announced on 1 February, amid mounting opposition, that the bill would scrapped.